Application of cell and tissue culture and in vitro selection for disease resistance breeding — a review
ABSTRACT Somaclonal variation, i.e. the variation induced by cell and tissue culture, offers an opportunity to broaden the genetic variation of crops. As a result of somaclonal variation a wide range of plant characteristics can be altered. However, the selection of agronomically important traits, e.g. disease resistance, has many limitations. The efficiency of selection can be increased by the application of in vitro selection procedures. Selection strategies that may be applied to obtain disease resistant somaclonal variants are described. Their merits and limitations, in relation to the efficiency of the procedures, the frequency of disease resistant variants and the genetics of the resistance obtained, are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Siamak Shirani Bidabadi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Banana is considered an important crop in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is very sensitive to drought as its growth and productivity are adversely affected by water stress which often is associated with enhanced oxidative injury (Chai et al. 2005; Ismail et al. 2004; Turner et al. 2007). Biotic and abiotic stresses enforce a great intimidation to crop plants, hence; the attempts to improve stress tolerant lines have a great value to increase crop productivity under such conditions. Deve-lopment of lines demonstrating tolerance to salt and drought stress applying in vitro selection has been reported in a large spectrum of crop plants (Biswas et al. 2002; Dita et al. 2006; Siamak Shirani Bidabadi () Abstract Water stress is a serious environmental restriction to banana productivity. Hence, the objective of this study was to employ in vitro mutagenesis in selection and characterization of drought tolerant lines in banana. In vitro culture responses of ethyl methane-sulphonate induced variants of banana cultivars, 'Berangan Intan' and 'Berangan' were assessed concerning morphological, physio-logical and molecular characteristics involving mutated shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 30 g L -1 PEG. The results showed that water stress tolerant lines could be obtained from induced variations. Variants L2-5 and L1-5 showed the highest number of leaves per shoot (2.37 and 2.06, respectively) and the lowest were recorded in the parental lines L1-1 and L2-1 (0.81 and 0.93, respec-tively). Fresh weight and shoot vigor rate indicated the maximum increase in the water stress tolerant lines compared with suscepti-ble and non-mutated parental lines. L2-5 exhibited the most increase in the chlorophyll and the most reduction in H2O2 and MDA con-tents when exposed to water stress. Under PEG treatment, proline and relative water content was enhanced in L1-5, L2-5, L2-6, L1-6, L2-3, L2-4, and L1-4. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphism (18.35 and 21.48%) among variants derived from 'Berangan Intan' and 'Beran-gan', respectively. The amplified fragments generated by primers opc01, opc04, opa11, and opa20 observed to be specific for L2-5 and L1-5 as more tolerant followed by L2-3, L1-4, L2-6, and L1-6 as moderately tolerant lines against water stress. This study demonstrates the application of in vitro mutagenesis in selection of water stress tolerant lines of banana as a convenient, cheap, and rapid technique.J. Crop Sci. Biotech. 01/2011; 14(4):255-263.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protoplasts isolated from three accessions of cultivated carrot and 5-day-old protoplast-derived aggregates were subjected to selection to identify somaclonal variants with enhanced tolerance to the fungal disease black rot incited by Alternaria radicina. Different concentrations [1, 2, 3.5, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 % (v/v)] of a fungal culture filtrate (FCF) from 2-week-old liquid cultures of A. radicina were used. Protoplasts and aggregates were subjected to short-term selection for a period of 10 days. All FCF concentrations added to the cultures on the day of isolation decreased protoplast survival frequency and plating efficiency, while FCF applied 5 days later inhibited cell divisions in 5–50 % concentrations. The responses of protoplasts to the treatment were genotype dependent. Most R0 plants were regenerated in all accessions from cell lines grown with 1 % FCF, while only a few plants were produced from 2 to 3.5 % FCF-treated cultures of ‘Dolanka’ and the breeding line ‘9304B’, respectively. Nineteen-percent of putative stress-tolerant regenerants were tetraploids, while only 5 % tetraploids were observed in the control. The incidence of unique random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments indicating possible chromosomal rearrangements was low and did not differ among regenerants after selection and those derived from the control. Mobilization of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements was not observed. Some R0 individuals regenerated both from FCF-treated and untreated cultures showed lower susceptibility to A. radicina in a laboratory assay in comparison to control plants grown from seed. Regenerants from FCF-treated cultures showed lower frequency of flowering plants and a higher rate of male sterility. Pollen viability of the putative stress-tolerant regenerants varied over a wide range (6–98 %), independently of in vitro selection conditions. Our data suggest that A. radicina FCF may be feasible for the in vitro selection to generate plants with superior phenotypic performance against A. radicina.Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 07/2013; · 3.63 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina.Plant Cell Reports 10/2012; · 2.51 Impact Factor