In the 1980s, the number of cases of syphilis in the United States increased concurrently with the onset of the HIV epidemic.
Within a short time, clinicians began to note unusual presentations of syphilis and inappropriate responses to standard therapy
for syphilis in dually infected patients. Whether these cases collectively represented a new aspect of the natural history
of syphilis remains to be elucidated. In recent years, only a few prospective studies have addressed this issue, and the results
of these studies have been inconclusive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of syphilis.
Studies and reviews were abstracted from MEDLINE (1950-April 2007) using the search term syphilis. All papers were cross-referenced to identify additional studies and reviews for inclusion.
Pertinent original research articles, review articles, and book chapters were evaluated.
Syphilis is a spirochetal disease that has plagued mankind for centuries. Following a low incidence of syphilis in the US for the last 2 decades, rates are now increasing both in the US and other parts of the world. Once acquired, syphilis can pass through 4 distinct stages of disease: primary syphilis, secondary syphilis, latent syphilis, and tertiary syphilis, with each stage being characterized by different symptoms and levels of infectivity. Diagnosis is made primarily by serologic assays with nontreponemal tests such as the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and the Rapid Plasma Reagin assay used for screening. Treponemal tests including the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test are then used for confirmation. Recommended treatment regimens are based largely on uncontrolled trials and clinical experience. Penicillin is the treatment of choice, with the preparation and treatment duration varying for different stages. Benzathine penicillin is the treatment of choice for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, for which aqueous crystalline penicillin or procaine penicillin is used due to the central nervous system penetration of these formulations. Coinfection with both syphilis and HIV occurs frequently due to common risk factors. These 2 diseases interact with each other, making both diagnosis and treatment more complicated.
Clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of syphilis as well as current guidelines for the management and treatment of this disease.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 03/2008; 42(2):226-36. DOI:10.1345/aph.1K086 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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