Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for upper lumbar disc herniation: clinical outcome, prognostic factors, and technical consideration
ABSTRACT BackgroundCompared with lower lumbar disc herniations, upper lumbar disc herniations at L1–L2 and L2–L3 have specific characteristics
that result in different surgical outcomes after conventional open discectomy. There are no published studies on the feasibility
of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for upper lumbar disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to assess the
clinical outcome, prognostic factors and the technical pitfalls of PELD for upper lumbar disc herniation.
MethodForty-five patients with a soft disc herniation at L1–L2 or L2–L3 underwent percutaneous endoscopic discectomy. Posterolateral
transforaminal endoscopic laser-assisted disc removal was performed under local anesthesia. Clinical outcomes was assessed
using the Prolo scale. The prognostic factors associated with outcome were then analyzed.
FindingsThe mean follow-up was 38.8months (range, 25–52months). The outcome of the 45 patients was excellent in 21 (46.7%), good
in 14 patients (31.1%), fair in six patients (13.3%), and poor in four patients (8.9%). Four patients with a poor outcome
underwent further open surgery. Mean scores on a visual analog scale decreased from 8.38 to 2.36 (P < 0.0001). Age less than 45years and a lateral disc herniation were independently associated with an excellent outcome (P < 0.05).
ConclusionsPatient selection and an anatomically modified surgical technique promote a more successful outcome after percutaneous endoscopic
discectomy for upper lumbar disc herniation.