A 12-year-old girl who had undergone cardiac surgery for ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect (ASD), and
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infancy was referred to our institution for fatigue and excessive sweating. Transthoracic
and transesophageal echocardiographic studies revealed tunnel-type subaortic stenosis with aortic valvular stenosis, for which
she underwent aortic valve replacement and myomectomy of left ventricular outflow tract. Progression of subaortic stenosis
should be considered in patients with only mild aortic valve stenosis after previous cardiovascular surgery. Echocardiography
contributed significantly to making the diagnosis and therapeutic decision in our patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to show elevations in septal shear stress in response to morphologic abnormalities that have been associated with discrete subaortic stenosis (SAS) in children. Combined with the published data, this critical connection supports a four-stage etiology of SAS that is advanced in this report.
Subaortic stenosis constitutes up to 20% of left ventricular outflow obstruction in children and frequently requires surgical removal, and the lesions may reappear unpredictably after the operation. The etiology of SAS is unknown. This study proposes a four-stage etiology for SAS that I) combines morphologic abnormalities, II) elevation of septal shear stress, III) genetic predisposition and IV) cellular proliferation in response to shear stress.
Morphologic structures of a left ventricular outflow tract were modeled based on measurements in patients with and without SAS. Septal shear stress was studied in response to changes in aortoseptal angle (AoSA) (120 degrees to 150 degrees), outflow tract convergence angle (45 degrees, 22.5 degrees and 0 degree), presence/location of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) (3-mm VSD; 2 and 6 mm from annulus) and shunt velocity (3 and 5 m/s).
Variations in AoSA produced marked elevations in septal shear stress (from 103 dynes/cm2 for 150 degrees angle to 150 dynes/cm2 for 120 degrees angle for baseline conditions). This effect was not dependent on the convergence angle in the outflow tract (150 to 132 dynes/cm2 over full range of angles including extreme case of 0 degree). A VSD enhanced this effect (150 to 220 dynes/cm2 at steep angle of 120 degrees and 3 m/s shunt velocity), consistent with the high incidence of VSDs in patients with SAS. The position of the VSD was also important, with a reduction of the distance between the VSD and the aortic annulus causing further increases in septal shear stress (220 and 266 dynes/cm2 for distances of 6 and 2 mm from the annulus, respectively).
Small changes in AoSA produce important changes in septal shear stress. The levels of stress increase are consistent with cellular flow studies showing stimulation of growth factors and cellular proliferation. Steepened AoSA may be a risk factor for the development of SAS. Evidence exists for all four stages of the proposed etiology of SAS.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/1997; 30(1):247-54. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(97)00048-X · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data derived from serial hemodynamic and angiocardiographic investigations on pediatric patients not subjected to intervening intracardiac operations support the view that subaortic stenosis in congenital heart disease tends to be a progressive disorder. Our data are obtained from two groups of patients. The first comprised 22 patients with discrete subaortic stenosis in relative isolation. The second was made up of 19 patients with the fibrous or fibromuscular forms of discrete subaortic stenosis associated with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect. The results from both groups support our initial contention. The progressive character of subaortic stenosis in these two situations illustrates the dynamic nature of congenital heart disease, and the tendency of a changing form and function.
International Journal of Cardiology 07/1985; 8(2):137-48. DOI:10.1016/0167-5273(85)90280-3 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term results of subaortic stenosis relief and the risk factors associated with recurrence and reoperation.
One hundred sixty patients with subaortic stenosis underwent biventricular repair. Before the operation the mean left ventricle-aorta gradient was 80 +/- 35 mm Hg, 57 patients had aortic regurgitation, and 34 were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Median age at repair was 10 years. For discrete subaortic stenosis (n = 120), 39 patients underwent isolated membranectomy, 67 underwent membranectomy with associated septal myotomy, and 14 underwent septal myectomy. Tunnel subaortic stenosis (n = 34) was treated by myotomy in 10 cases, myectomy in 12, septoplasty in 7, Konno procedure in 3, and apical conduit in 2. Aortic valve replacement was performed in 6 cases, mitral valve replacement in 2 cases, and mitral valvuloplasty in 4 cases.
There were 5 early (3.1%) and 4 late (4.4%) deaths. Within 3.6 +/- 3.3 years a recurrent gradient greater than 30 mm Hg was found in 42 patients (27%), 20 of whom had 26 reoperations. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis survival was influenced by hypoplastic aortic anulus (P =.01) and mitral stenosis (P =.048); recurrence and reoperation were influenced by coarctation and immediate postoperative left ventricular outflow tract gradients. At a median follow-up of 13.3 years, mean left ventricle-aorta gradient was 20 +/- 13 mm Hg. Relief of the subaortic stenosis improved the degree of aortic regurgitation in 86% of patients with preoperative aortic regurgitation. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation rates at 15 years were 94% +/- 1.3% and 85% +/- 6%, respectively.
Although surgical treatment provides good results, recurrence and reoperation are significantly influenced by previous coarctation repair and by the quality of initial relief of subaortic stenosis.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 05/1999; 117(4):669-78. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5223(99)70286-2 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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