Angle-resolved UV photoelectron spectroscopy of ethylene and benzene on nickel
ABSTRACT A review of results obtained by Angle-Resolved UV-Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARUPS) using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation is presented for two model systems, ethylene/Ni and benzene/Ni. It is shown that for these systems detailed conclusions concerning adsorbate/substrate and adsorbate/adsorbate interactions can be derived from ARUPS spectra using symmetry selection rules, and in combination with model calculations. In particular, electronic structure, bonding, orientation and symmetry of the adsorbates in dilute and saturated layers will be discussed. It is shown that at high adsorbate coverages lateral interactions in the adsorbate layer play a dominant role. Steric effects in densely packed layers can lead to a reorientation of the molecules as compared to the orientation of the single molecules. The ARUPS spectra of well ordered, densely packed layers exhibit significant (up to 2 eV) dispersion of the various adsorbate bands and allow detailed conclusions on two-dimensional adsorbate band structures.