Angle-resolved UV photoelectron spectroscopy of ethylene and benzene on nickel
ABSTRACT A review of results obtained by Angle-Resolved UV-Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARUPS) using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation is presented for two model systems, ethylene/Ni and benzene/Ni. It is shown that for these systems detailed conclusions concerning adsorbate/substrate and adsorbate/adsorbate interactions can be derived from ARUPS spectra using symmetry selection rules, and in combination with model calculations. In particular, electronic structure, bonding, orientation and symmetry of the adsorbates in dilute and saturated layers will be discussed. It is shown that at high adsorbate coverages lateral interactions in the adsorbate layer play a dominant role. Steric effects in densely packed layers can lead to a reorientation of the molecules as compared to the orientation of the single molecules. The ARUPS spectra of well ordered, densely packed layers exhibit significant (up to 2 eV) dispersion of the various adsorbate bands and allow detailed conclusions on two-dimensional adsorbate band structures.
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ABSTRACT: Since the advent of third generation synchrotron light sources optimized for providing soft X-rays up to 2 keV, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been developed to be an outstanding tool to study surface properties and surface reactions at an unprecedented level. The high resolution allows identifying various surface species, and for small molecules even the vibrational fine structure can be resolved in the XP spectra. The high photon flux reduces the required measuring time per spectrum to the domain of a few seconds or even less, which enables to follow surface processes in situ. Moreover, it also provides access to very small coverages down to below 0.1% of a monolayer, enabling the investigation of minority species or processes at defect sites. The photon energy can be adjusted according to the requirement of a particular experiment, i.e., to maximize or minimize the surface sensitivity or the photoionization cross-section of the substrate or the adsorbate. For a few instruments worldwide, a next step forward was taken by combining in situ high-resolution spectrometers with supersonic molecular beams. These beams allow to control and vary the kinetic and internal energies of the incident molecules and provide a local pressure of up to ~10−5 mbar, which can be switched on and off in a controllable way, thus offering a well-defined time structure to study adsorption or reaction processes. Herein, we will review some specific scientific aspects which can be addressed by in situ XPS in order to demonstrate the power and potential of the method: In particular, the following topics will be addressed: (1) The sensitivity of the binding energy to adsorption sites will be analyzed, using CO on metals as example. From measurements at different temperatures, the binding energy difference between different sites can be derived, and exchange processes between different adsorbate species at step edges can be followed. (2) The vibrational fine structure of adsorbed small hydrocarbon species on metal surfaces will be analyzed in detail. We will first introduce the linear coupling model, then discuss the properties of adsorbed methyl and of a number of other small hydrocarbons, and show that the vibrational signature can be used as fingerprint for identifying surface species. (3) It is demonstrated that the binding energy of equivalent atoms in a molecule can be differentially changed by adsorption to a substrate; this sensitivity to the local environment will be discussed for adsorbed ethylene, benzene and graphene. (4) By temperature programmed XPS, the thermal evolution of adsorbed species can be followed in great detail, allowing for the identification of reaction intermediates and the determination of their stabilities. (5) The investigation of reaction kinetics by isothermal XPS measurements will be discussed; here results for the oxidation of sulfur and of CO will be presented and the corresponding activation energies of the rate limiting steps will be determined.Surface Science Reports 01/2013; 68(s 3–4):446–487. · 15.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied the adsorption of benzene on Al(111) using angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron, high-resolution electron energy loss, and thermal desorption spectroscopies (ARUPS, HREELS, and TDS, respectively), work function measurements, and by density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the ab-initio vasp code. The analysis of ARUPS and HREELS spectra of a benzene monolayer unambiguously indicate C6v symmetry and a weak benzene–Al interaction in an adsorption geometry with the ring plane parallel to the surface. The weak interaction is confirmed by TDS. The DFT calculations indicate an electrostatic bond and yield an average benzene–Al(111) distance of 3.7 Å. A weak minimum of the potential energy is observed at the hollow adsorption position.Chemical Physics Letters 01/2000; 318(1):43-48. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angle-resolved UV photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation is used to determine the orientation of benzene molecules on two modifications of the pseudomorphic Ni/Cu(111) layer, the Ni-terminated adlayer and the Cu-terminated Ni sublayer. It is found that the molecules adsorb with their C-H bonds 30° off the close-packed substrate rows (sigmav orientation) on the Ni adlayer whereas no preferential orientation was found for the Cu-terminated Ni sublayer. For these and other close-packed mono- and bimetallic surfaces involving Cu, Ni and Ru, the correlation between adsorption geometry and reactivity of benzene is explored in connection with temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Like for the Ni/Cu(111) sublayer, no preferential lateral orientation and a weak bond is found on most other Cu-terminated surfaces at 80 K. This goes along with the absence of any dissociation on these surfaces. Only on the stretched 1 ML Cu/Ru(0001) surface is the substrate-benzene bond strong enough to induce a clear preferential orientation (sigmad with C-H bonds parallel to the close-packed rows) but still too weak to induce dissociation. The same orientation was found for the saturated benzene layer on Ni(111) where the molecules also do not dissociate. Dissociation is, however, observed for the saturation coverage of benzene on the Ni/Cu(111) adlayer and for low benzene coverages on Ni(111). On these surfaces the azimuthal orientation of the benzene molecules is sigmav, i.e. rotated by 30° with respect to the close-packed rows.Surface Review and Letters 01/1999; 6(05):893-901. · 0.28 Impact Factor