A 1431-bp upstream fragment of Athsp70b was cloned via PCR amplification and expressed in onion epidermis by particle bombardment. Furthermore, the progressive deletions
of the Athsp70b upstream fragment linked to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were performed. Then, a stable GUS expression was analyzed
in tobacco BY2 cells and Arabidopsis. Our present results showed that about a 500-bp region upstream ATG of Athsp70b is suitable to confer heat inducibility to the GUS reporter gene in plants and around 116 bp contain nonperfect heat-sensitive element. This promoter responds to heat, salicylic
acid, and benzyladenine. GUS staining was mainly observed in the vascular tissues and root tips, implying that Athsp70b is related to water transportation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat-acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during the next 6 h. Increases in free SA were smaller (2-fold) but significant. Changes in antioxidants showed the following similarities after either heat-acclimation or SA treatment. The reduced-to-oxidized ascorbate ratio was 5-fold lower than the controls 1 h after treatment but recovered by 2 h. The glutathione pool became slightly more oxidized from 2 h after treatment. Glutathione reductase activity was more than 50% higher during the first 2 h. Activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase decreased by at least 25% during the first 2 h but were 20% to 60% higher than the control levels after 3 to 6 h. One hour after heat acclimation ascorbate peroxidase activity was increased by 30%. Young leaves appeared to be better protected by antioxidant enzymes following heat acclimation than the cotyledons or stem. Changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants may be involved in heat acclimation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organisms respond to elevated temperatures and to chemical and physiological stresses by an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins. The regulation of heat shock gene expression in eukaryotes is mediated by the conserved heat shock transcription factor (HSF). HSF is present in a latent state under normal conditions; it is activated upon heat stress by induction of trimerization and high-affinity binding to DNA and by exposure of domains for transcriptional activity. Analysis of HSF cDNA clones from many species has defined structural and regulatory regions responsible for the inducible activities. The heat stress signal is thought to be transduced to HSF by changes in the physical environment, in the activity of HSF-modifying enzymes, or by changes in the intracellular level of heat shock proteins.
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 02/1995; 11(1):441-69. DOI:10.1146/annurev.cb.11.110195.002301 · 16.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A system for the controlled expression of a foreign gene in cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, BY2) by temperature shift was constructed. A 925-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment containing the 5'-flanking region of a low-molecular-mass heat-shock protein gene (HSP18.2) of Arabidopsis thaliana was inserted upstream of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting HSP18.2-GUS construct was introduced into BY2 cells by electroporation or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transient expression of the HSP18.2 promoter in protoplasts was very low regardless of the heat shock. Although expression of the HSP18.2-GUS chimeric gene in the stable transformants of BY2 was hardly detected in culture at 25 degrees C, the expression increased rapidly on the transcriptional level when the incubation temperature was shifted to 35-37 degrees C. The optimal temperature for heat-shock induction was 37 degrees C. After a 2-h incubation at 37 degrees C, GUS activity was about 1000-fold greater than that before heat shock. The amount of GUS mRNA was maximum 2 h after heat shock, and then decreased gradually.
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