Tobacco withdrawal symptoms: An experimental analysis

University of Minnesota
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/1984; 84(2):231-236. DOI: 10.1007/BF00427451
Source: PubMed


This study was a prospective examination of tobacco withdrawal symptoms in a controlled environment. Smokers (N=27) were hospitalized for a 7-day period during which a battery of tests was administered. Smokers were assigned to either an experimental group (N=20) or a control group (N=7). Subjects in the experimental group smoked ad libitum for a 3-day baseline period and then underwent 4 days of tobacco deprivation. Subjects in the control group continued to smoke ad libitum throughout the study. Of the 37 measures of tobacco withdrawal employed in this study, nine showed significant changes following tobacco deprivation. These changes include decreased heart rate and increased caloric intake, weight, craving for tobacco, confusion, depression-dejection, number of awakenings, duration of awakenings, and increased poor concentrations as observed by others.

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Available from: Dorothy Hatsukami, Jul 21, 2014
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    • "Increased consumption of sweet-tasting and high-caloric food is one consequence of withdrawal in human alcoholics (Junghanns et al. 2000; for review, see Kampov-Polevoy et al. 1999) and smokers (Grunberg 1982; Hall et al. 1989; Hatsukami et al. 1984, 1993) as well as in nicotine-dependent laboratory animals (Grunberg et al. 1985, 1988a, b). A suggested explanation for this phenomenon has been that nicotine as well as alcohol withdrawal increases plasma levels of insulin (Grunberg et al. 1985, 1988a; Passilta et al. 1999). "
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    Psychopharmacology 10/2010; 212(3):321-8. DOI:10.1007/s00213-010-1957-x · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    • "The severity of nicotine dependence was assessed using the FTND (Heatherton et al. 1991) at intake only. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Minnesota Withdrawal Questionnaire (MWQ; Hatsukami et al. 1984), and craving was assessed using the Tiffany Smoking Urges Questionnaire (Tiffany & Drobes, 1991) on SPECT scan day pre-and post-nicotine inhaler challenge. Two factors of Tiffany Smoking Urges Questionnaire were employed here: desire (positive symptoms associated with wanting a cigarette ; e.g. "
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    • "A number of available human laboratory models have been designed to investigate the various aspects of smoking behavior and nicotine-dependence phenomena (see Lerman et al. 2007 for review) including nicotine discrimination (Perkins et al. 1997, 1999), nicotine reinforcement and tolerance (Perkins et al. 2001, 2002), deprivation effects (Hatsukami et al. 1984) and selfadministration behavior (Hatsukami et al. 1998; Perkins et al. 1997). Probably the best studied human laboratory paradigm examining smoking behavior is the cue-reactivity paradigm. "
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