Blood smears from 892 Australian shepherds were evaluated for the presence of Pelger–Hue¨t (P-H) anomaly over a 6-year period.
During the study, 87 dogs were diagnosed with P-H anomaly (9.8% incidence) following microscopic examination of Wright–Leishman–stained
blood smears. Granulocytes from dogs with P-H anomaly had nuclear hyposegmentation resembling bands and metamyelocytes; however,
the chromatin pattern was more aggregated than that observed in mature segmenters. The granulocyte morphology of dogs with
P-H anomaly was similar to that described for humans and rabbits with the heterozygous form of P-H anomaly. Where gender was
known, 9.4% of males and 8.8% of females had P-H anomaly, indicating autosomal transmittance of the trait. None of the dogs
with P-H anomaly had a predominance of granulocytes with round to oval nuclei (myelocytes) and an extremely coarse chromatin
pattern, suggestive of the homozygous form of the anomaly. Because this phenotype was not observed in Australian shepherds,
the homozygous form of P-H anomaly may be a lethal trait in utero. Six dogs with P-H anomaly had parents with a normal leucocyte
phenotype. In addition, the incidence of P-H anomaly in F1 puppies from matings of individuals with normal and P-H phenotypes
was less than expected. These observations strongly suggest that P-H anomaly is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait
with incomplete or decreased penetrance in Australian shepherds. Transmittance of P-H anomaly in this breed of dogs may be
governed by more than one allele or expression of the anomaly may modified by genes at a different locus or loci.
"The Danish/Swedish Farmdog, recognized as a breed in Denmark and Sweden in 1987, is a small dog resembling a terrier but related to the pinscher family. Although PHA has been documented in many different dog breeds, there has been only one previous report from Europe.[20,21] "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 13 year old Danish/Swedish Farmdog from Denmark was evaluated in a veterinary clinic in Warsaw, Poland for evaluation of an orthopedic problem. Radiographs revealed spondylosis and degenerative vertebral disease, which responded to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. A predominance of hyposegmented neutrophils and eosinophils containing condensed chromatin and normal cytoplasm were identified on a routine CBC. Follow-up blood film evaluations over the course of 12 months confirmed that the hyposegmented granulocytes persisted. The majority of neutrophils contained Grade 2 nuclei (slightly indented), and the mean nuclear score varied from 1.9 to 2.3. Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA), presumably congenital, was diagnosed based on persistent hyposegmented granulocytes in the absence of an underlying cause for acquired PHA; genetically related dogs were unavailable for testing to confirm vertical transmission. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of PHA in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 1.5-year-old male Arabian horse was referred to the Louisiana State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Clinic for an open deep laceration involving two thirds of the right trunk. The initial CBC results included an inflammatory leukogram, characterized by a marked degenerative left shift consisting of only immature band neutrophils (7500/microL, reference interval 0-100/microL) with toxic changes and no segmented neutrophils (0/microL, reference interval 2700-6700/microL). On abdominal ultrasonography, free abdominal fluid was found and collected for analysis. Abdominal fluid had a marked increase in total nucleated cells (40,600 cells/microL) consisting of 74% nondegenerate neutrophils that all were hyposegmented, with mature condensed chromatin. Re-evaluation of neutrophil morphology on the initial blood smear confirmed hyposegmentation and mature condensed chromatin, similar to that observed in cells in the abdominal fluid. A diagnosis of Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA) was made in this colt. Congenital PHA was documented on the basis of persistent neutrophil hyposegmentation on serial blood smears, ruling out of acquired causes of PHA, and findings of similar neutrophil hyposegmentation on blood smears from the colt's sire and the sire's siblings. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of congenital PHA in a horse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 9-year-old Arabian mare was evaluated for a 7-day history of malaise. Results of a CBC included a leukocyte concentration within the reference interval (8.4 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 6.0-14.0 x 10(3)/microL) with an apparent degenerative left shift (segmented neutrophils 1.2 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 2.5-7.5 x 10(3)/microL; hyposegmented neutrophils 1.8 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 0.0-0.2 x 10(3)/microL). Serum clinical chemistry results included increased aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis was made. The horse was treated with antimicrobials and the malaise quickly resolved. However, in a recheck CBC on day 13, the apparent degenerative left shift remained. Further evaluation of the blood smear revealed many hyposegmented granulocytes with coarse mature chromatin and normal cytoplasmic features. On the basis of the microscopic examination, the horse was diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly. The patient's offspring was subsequently also diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly on the basis of blood film examination. Neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil mean nuclear scores in both affected horses (mare, range 1.5-2.6; offspring, range 1.6-3.2) were lower than those in 2 unrelated Arabian horses (range, 2.8-5.0) and 5 non-Arabian control horses (range, 2.8-5.0). Results of immunophenotyping and phagocytosis/oxidative burst assays via flow cytometry showed no difference in the expression of myeloid-specific or adhesion molecules or in neutrophil function between affected and control horses. This is the second known report of equine Pelger-Huët anomaly, both of which affected Arabian horses.
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