The two facets of female violence: The public and the domestic domains
ABSTRACT Violent behavior of women varies significantly in the public and private domains. Criminal statistics indicate a relatively low proportion of women among violent offenders in the public domain, while in the domestic and/or private domain statistics reflect almost no gender difference in violent behavior. The following paper proposes a dynamic model which draws upon psychological and sociological variables and suggests that the clue for understanding the paradoxical phenomenon lies in the relative importance the domestic domain plays in the woman''s value structure. Among the variables considered were: social learning patterns regarding violent behavior; perception of danger; and the ways in which women express their frustration and/or anger.
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the validity of the overcontrolled hostility construct in explaining violent crime among 186 female state-prison inmates who were classified as nonviolent (NV), one-time violent (OV), or repeat violent (RV) offenders. The women's prison records were reviewed, and a complete Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2nd ed.) (MMPI-2) protocol and Spielberger et al.'s Anger Expression Scale were administered. Overcontrolled Hostility (O-H) scale scores on the MMPI-2 effectively differentiated the OV group from the NV and RV offender groups. The OV women were overrepresented among female violent offenders, had significantly shorter nonviolent criminal histories than the other two groups, and were more likely to have committed an extremely violent act than the RV group. The RV offenders reported greater acting out when angered and exhibited more prison aggression compared to the other two groups. These data highlight the importance of the overcontrolled hostility construct and the undercontrolled/overcontrolled distinction in the analysis of violent offending among female inmates. T he number of violent female offenders in prisons has risen dra-matically in the past two decades (English, 1993; Snell, 1994); however, the topic of female violence has long been neglected and understudied (White & Kowalski, 1994). Moreover, many of the theo-176 AUTHORS' NOTE: The data used in this study were part of a larger investigation into the patterns of criminal behavior and violence among female inmates. Prelimi-nary findings from this research were presented at the annual meeting of the AmericanCriminal Justice and Behavior 01/2000; 27:176-195. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies of maladaptive behavior in women have traditionally focused on difficulties that are self-destructive in nature, such as suicidal behavior, eating disorders, and self-mutilation (e.g., Canetto & Lester, 1995; Cross, 1993; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). However, in the last several years, there has been a shift toward seeking to understand women’s maladjustment in its aggressive and socially harmful forms (Ayduk, Downey, Testa, Ying Yen, & Shoda, 1999). This shift has, in part, been the result of a greater awareness of the existence and prevalence of women’s harmful acts. For example, between 1988 and 1997, the rate of criminal activity rose more dramatically for female (69%) than for male (26%) adolescents, as msured by court referrals (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999). Finally, interest in female aggressive behavior has also been encouraged by studies on close relationships that find women use strategies such as direct physical aggression (e.g., Archer & Ray, 1989; Arias, Samios, & O’Leary, 1987; Ben-David, 1993; Deal & Wampler, 1986; Plass & Gessner, 1983), verbal aggression (e.g., Billingham & Sack, 1987; deWeerth & Kalma, 1992), and the undermining of others’ social relationships (e.g., Bjorkqvist, Osterman, & Lagerspetz, 1992; Cairns & Cairns, 1994; Crick & Grotpeter, 1995) to inflict intentional harm (Ayduk et al., 1999).
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ABSTRACT: There have been periodic “discoveries” of the violent female offender as well as dire predictions of an increase in violence committed by women. The authors examine the pattern of violent crime by women over a long period of time to determine whether or not the “problem” of increasing violence is a myth. The authors conclude that women’s contribution to violent crime has been and continues to make up a small percentage, except for crime categories that are highly vulnerable to changes in system responses.Criminal Justice Review. 01/2005; 30(1):5-29.