Diet in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer in Western New York (United States)
ABSTRACT Objectives: We examined diet and risk of endometrial cancer among women in the Western New York Diet Study (1986–1991).
Methods: Self-reported frequency of use of 172 foods and beverages during the 2 years before the interview and other relevant data were collected by detailed interviews from 232 endometrial cancer cases and 639 controls, frequency-matched for age and county of residence. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status, menopausal estrogen use, and energy.
Results: Risks were reduced for women in the highest quartiles of intake of protein (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9), dietary fiber (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0), phytosterols (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0), vitamin C (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.8) folate (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.7), alpha-carotene (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–1.0), beta-carotene (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.6), lycopene (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–1.0), lutein + zeaxanthin (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5) and vegetables (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9), but unrelated to energy (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6–1.5) or fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 0.7–3.4).
Conclusions: Our results support previous findings of reduced endometrial cancer risks associated with a diet high in plant foods.
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is hypothesized to increase the risk of endometrial cancer by increasing circulating estrogen levels. This study sought to investigate the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk. We recruited 514 incident endometrial cancer cases and 962 frequency age-matched controls in this population-based case-control study in Alberta, Canada, from 2002 to 2006. Participants completed in-person interviews querying lifetime alcohol consumption and other relevant health and lifestyle factors. Participants reported the usual number of drinks of beer, wine, and liquor consumed; this information was compiled for each drinking pattern reported over the lifetime to estimate average lifetime exposure to alcohol. Lifetime average alcohol consumption was relatively low (median intake: 3.9 g/day for cases, 4.9 g/day for controls). Compared with lifetime abstainers, women consuming >2.68 and ≤8.04 g/day alcohol and >8.04 g/day alcohol on average over the lifetime showed 38 and 35 % lower risks of endometrial cancer, respectively (p trend = 0.023). In addition, average lifetime consumption of all types of alcohol was associated with decreased risks. There was no evidence for effect modification by body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy use combined and effects did not differ by type of endometrial cancer (type I or II). This study provides epidemiologic evidence for an inverse association between relatively modest lifetime average alcohol consumption (approximately 1/4 to 1/2 drink/day) and endometrial cancer risk. The direction of this relation is consistent with previous studies that examined similar levels of alcohol intake.Cancer Causes and Control 08/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Because of their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties, flavonoids may reduce cancer risk. Some flavonoids have antiestrogenic effects that can inhibit the growth and proliferation of endometrial cancer cells.Methods:In order to examine the relation between dietary flavonoids and endometrial cancer, we analysed data from an Italian case-control study including 454 incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancers and 908 hospital-based controls. Information was collected through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We applied data on food and beverage composition to estimate the intake of flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression models conditioned on age and study centre and adjusted for major confounding factors.Results:Women in the highest quartile category of proanthocyanidins with 3 mers vs the first three quartile categories had an OR for endometrial cancer of 0.66 (95% CI=0.48-0.89). For no other class of flavonoids, a significant overall association was found. There was a suggestion of an inverse association for flavanones and isoflavones among women with body mass index <25 kg m(-2), and, for flavanones, among parous or non-users of hormone-replacement therapy women.Conclusion:High consumption of selected proanthocyanidins may reduce endometrial cancer risk.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.447 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer risk has been directly associated with glycemic load. However, few studies have investigated this link, and the etiological role of specific dietary carbohydrate components remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Recruitment took place in 1993-2001. Over a median of 9.0 years of follow-up through 2009, 386 women developed endometrial cancer among 36,115 considered in the analysis. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item diet history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant inverse associations were detected between endometrial cancer risk and total available carbohydrate intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.90), total sugars intake (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96), and glycemic load (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.84) when women in the highest quartile of intake were compared with those in the lowest. These inverse associations were strongest among overweight and obese women. No associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for glycemic index or dietary fiber. Our findings contrast with previous evidence and suggest that high carbohydrate intakes and glycemic loads are protective against endometrial cancer development. Further clarification of these associations is warranted.American journal of epidemiology 10/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor