Objectives: We examined diet and risk of endometrial cancer among women in the Western New York Diet Study (1986–1991).
Methods: Self-reported frequency of use of 172 foods and beverages during the 2 years before the interview and other relevant data were collected by detailed interviews from 232 endometrial cancer cases and 639 controls, frequency-matched for age and county of residence. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status, menopausal estrogen use, and energy.
Results: Risks were reduced for women in the highest quartiles of intake of protein (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9), dietary fiber (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0), phytosterols (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0), vitamin C (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.8) folate (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.7), alpha-carotene (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–1.0), beta-carotene (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.6), lycopene (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–1.0), lutein + zeaxanthin (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5) and vegetables (OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9), but unrelated to energy (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6–1.5) or fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 0.7–3.4).
Conclusions: Our results support previous findings of reduced endometrial cancer risks associated with a diet high in plant foods.
"While some studies have used very crude measures of alcohol intake based on consumption patterns at a single point in time, others have estimated alcohol consumption patterns more comprehensively. To our knowledge, only four previous studies have attempted to assess lifetime alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk [25, 26, 29, 36]. Most recently, lifetime alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk were described in the context of the EPIC study, a large prospective study of over 300,000 women who were followed on average for 11 years . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is hypothesized to increase the risk of endometrial cancer by increasing circulating estrogen levels. This study sought to investigate the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk.
We recruited 514 incident endometrial cancer cases and 962 frequency age-matched controls in this population-based case-control study in Alberta, Canada, from 2002 to 2006. Participants completed in-person interviews querying lifetime alcohol consumption and other relevant health and lifestyle factors. Participants reported the usual number of drinks of beer, wine, and liquor consumed; this information was compiled for each drinking pattern reported over the lifetime to estimate average lifetime exposure to alcohol.
Lifetime average alcohol consumption was relatively low (median intake: 3.9 g/day for cases, 4.9 g/day for controls). Compared with lifetime abstainers, women consuming >2.68 and ≤8.04 g/day alcohol and >8.04 g/day alcohol on average over the lifetime showed 38 and 35 % lower risks of endometrial cancer, respectively (p trend = 0.023). In addition, average lifetime consumption of all types of alcohol was associated with decreased risks. There was no evidence for effect modification by body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy use combined and effects did not differ by type of endometrial cancer (type I or II).
This study provides epidemiologic evidence for an inverse association between relatively modest lifetime average alcohol consumption (approximately 1/4 to 1/2 drink/day) and endometrial cancer risk. The direction of this relation is consistent with previous studies that examined similar levels of alcohol intake.
Cancer Causes and Control 08/2013; 24(11). DOI:10.1007/s10552-013-0275-0 · 2.74 Impact Factor
"Proanthocyanidins may thus contribute to a favourable effect of vegetables on endometrial cancer risk, although other micronutrients and food components present in vegetables should also be considered (Jain et al, 2000; McCann et al, 2000; Xu et al, 2007; Pelucchi et al, 2008; Bandera et al, 2009a). Two studies have examined an overall antioxidant exposure rather than individual antioxidants (Cui et al, 2011; Gifkins et al, 2012), and, among the various antioxidant indices considered, only the one measuring phenolics was inversely related to endometrial cancer risk (Gifkins et al, 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Because of their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties, flavonoids may reduce cancer risk. Some flavonoids have antiestrogenic effects that can inhibit the growth and proliferation of endometrial cancer cells.
In order to examine the relation between dietary flavonoids and endometrial cancer, we analysed data from an Italian case–control study including 454 incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancers and 908 hospital-based controls. Information was collected through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We applied data on food and beverage composition to estimate the intake of flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression models conditioned on age and study centre and adjusted for major confounding factors.
Women in the highest quartile category of proanthocyanidins with ⩾3 mers vs the first three quartile categories had an OR for endometrial cancer of 0.66 (95% CI=0.48–0.89). For no other class of flavonoids, a significant overall association was found. There was a suggestion of an inverse association for flavanones and isoflavones among women with body mass index <25 kg m−2, and, for flavanones, among parous or non-users of hormone-replacement therapy women.
High consumption of selected proanthocyanidins may reduce endometrial cancer risk.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; 109(7). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.447 · 4.84 Impact Factor
"However, the majority of these studies are retrospective, case–control studies (and thus subject to recall bias). Most studies of fish intake and endometrial cancer are also retrospective and report no relationship (Levi et al, 1993; Hirose et al, 1996; Goodman et al, 1997; Fernandez et al, 1999; Jain et al, 2000; McCann et al, 2000; Bravi et al, 2009). Limited studies suggest positive (Shu et al, 1993; Xu et al, 2006) or inverse associations (Terry et al, 2002b; Arem et al, 2012) between fish intake and endometrial cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There are limited prospective studies of fish and meat intakes with risk of endometrial cancer and findings are inconsistent.
We studied associations between fish and meat intakes and endometrial cancer incidence in the large, prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of meat mutagens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
We observed no associations with endometrial cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest intake quintiles of red (HR=0.91, 95% CI 0.77–1.08), white (0.98, 0.83–1.17), processed meats (1.02, 0.86–1.21) and fish (1.10, 95% CI 0.93–1.29). We also found no associations between meat mutagen intakes and endometrial cancer.
Our findings do not support an association between meat or fish intakes or meat mutagens and endometrial cancer.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2013; 109(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.252 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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