Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) is a long-term programmatic approach to rural development
that uses wildlife and other natural resources as a mechanism for promoting devolved rural institutions and improved governance
and livelihoods. The cornerstone of CAMPFIRE is the right to manage, use, dispose of, and benefit from these resources. Between
1989 and 2006, CAMPFIRE income, mostly from high valued safari hunting, totalled nearly USD
30 million, of which 52 allocated to sub-district wards and villages for community projects and household benefits. Whilst a number of assumptions underlying the success of CAMPFIRE as an innovative model for CBNRM have yet to be met, CAMPFIRE confirms the concept that devolving responsibility and accountability for natural resource management can be highly effective for the collective and participatory management of such resources. Elephant numbers in CAMPFIRE areas have increased and buffalo numbers are either stable or decreased slightly during the life of the programme. However, offtake quotas for these two species have increased with a concomitant decline in trophy quality. Although the amount of wildlife habitat diminished after 1980, following the commencement of CAMPFIRE the rate of habitat loss slowed down and in some specific instances was even reversed. More recently there has been increased pressure on habitats and other natural resources as a consequence of deteriora����»���
30 million, of which 52% was
allocated to sub-district wards and villages for community projects and household benefits. Whilst a number of assumptions
underlying the success of CAMPFIRE as an innovative model for CBNRM have yet to be met, CAMPFIRE confirms the concept that
devolving responsibility and accountability for natural resource management can be highly effective for the collective and
participatory management of such resources. Elephant numbers in CAMPFIRE areas have increased and buffalo numbers are either
stable or decreased slightly during the life of the programme. However, offtake quotas for these two species have increased
with a concomitant decline in trophy quality. Although the amount of wildlife habitat diminished after 1980, following the
commencement of CAMPFIRE the rate of habitat loss slowed down and in some specific instances was even reversed. More recently
there has been increased pressure on habitats and other natural resources as a consequence of deteriorating socio-economic
conditions in the country. Where devolution has been successful, promising results have been achieved and the recent acceptance
and implementation of direct payments to communities is probably the most significant development since 2000. That this has
happened can be attributed to CAMPFIRE enabling communities to maximize their roles within the existing set of rules, and
by so doing, allowing these rules to be challenged. Donor (73%) and government (27%) investments into the programme amounted
to 35 million during the period 1989 to 2003. Since 2003 however, donor funding has been reduced to <$600,000 over the past
") and also the year in which CAMPFIRE was implemented in Zimbabwe (Child 1996; Taylor 2009). More detailed description of the CAMPFIRE programme are provided elsewhere (Child 2000; Gandiwa et al. 2013a; Martin 1986). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myths and metaphors that occur in media frames play an important role in influencing public perceptions of an issue in times of war, political conflict, crisis and disaster. This, in turn, influences policy makers and (inter)national assistance and aid programmes. We investigated whether a metaphoric spill-over of frames used in connection with political events could explain the misrepresentation in the framing of wildlife conservation. Zimbabwe experienced a severe political conflict and economic downturn in 2000 when land reforms took place. We analysed newspaper articles on Zimbabwe's wildlife conservation published between 1989 and 2010 from newspapers in Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. We selected three issues about wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe in the local and international media, namely, the ivory ban, rhino protection, and Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources to investigate the spill-over effect. Our results show that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, two major changes occurred after 2000 following the land reforms in Zimbabwe. First, the international media showed little interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles and second, the frames changed in the international media with the "political unrest and land reform" blame frame becoming more dominant. This transition in reporting, frames, and low frame parity shows that there was a spill-over effect of political frames into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe's land reforms in 2000. Metaphoric spill-over effects may thus create myths in the readership, in turn influencing policy-derived actions in a sector that is not or poorly related to the actual disaster.
"Consequently, integrated approaches that recognize the interconnectedness of social and ecological systems and attempts to link science, policy and societal goals through interdisciplinary methods of problem solving and multi-stakeholder decision making have been suggested to be important in promoting conservation and development (Mishra et al. 2009). For example, it has been reported that the rate of illegal hunting has decreased since the inception of the CAMPFIRE programmes in some areas in Zimbabwe as a result of direct benefits from wildlife resources and an increase in antipoaching activities in the areas with CAMPFIRE programmes (Child 1996; Taylor 2009). Animal abundance data in GNP support the perception that animal populations have been increasing and/or maintaining their populations in recent years (Dunham et al. 2010; Gandiwa 2012; Gandiwa et al. 2013b; Zisadza et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study aimed at addressing the following two research questions: (1) what are the perceptions of law enforcement staff in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, about illegal hunting practices, illegal hunter’s characteristics, wild animals commonly targeted and trends of poaching in the park; and, (2) what are the suggestions for reducing illegal hunting and enhancing wildlife conservation in GNP ecosystem? Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire administered through interviews from 42 law enforcement staff representing 47 % of the total law enforcement staff in GNP from February to May 2011. Our results showed that 76 % (n = 32) of the patrol rangers perceived that most illegal hunters were between 21 and 30 years. Nearly all respondents (95 %; n = 40) reported that most poachers were residents of villages situated within 20 km from the boundary of GNP. Medium to large wild herbivores were reportedly the most illegally animal hunted species whilst large carnivores were the least illegally hunted animals. Most of the respondents (79 %, n = 33) perceived that poaching activities had declined in GNP ecosystem between 2005 and 2010 due to an increase in arrests. Increasing conservation awareness and education in adjacent communal areas would help to further reduce illegal hunting and promote wildlife conservation.
"Revenue generated from wildlife, mainly from safari hunting, is generally distributed as follows: 15% to council as a levy, 35% to council for project management, and 50% to CAMPFIRE communities (Madzudzo 1997). Safari operators pay the hunting fees to the RDCs, and the RDCs then pass on the community proportion to producer communities through the local CAMPFIRE committees (Mapedza 2009, Taylor 2009). A local CAMPFIRE committee is chaired by an elected chairman, and the committee decides on how the revenues are used in consultation with the local people. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i) a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii) local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.
ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY 10/2013; 18(4):7. DOI:10.5751/ES-05817-180407 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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