The predominating molecular species in jojoba oil iscis-13-docosenylcis-11-eicosenoate (erucyl jojobenoate), ranging from 31% to 45% of the extracted seed oil. Other alcohol/acid combinations contribute
to the C42 molecular chain length so that this fraction constitutes a low of 41% to a high of 57% of the total wax esters. The positions
of the exclusivelycis ethylenic bonds in the alcohol and acid moieties of the wax esters are 99% ω-9 and 1% ω-7. Only 2% of the alcohol and acid
moieties were saturated when analyzed after saponification of the oil. Triglycerides were detected by gas chromatography in
all of the more than 200 natural jojoba oil samples tested, a few of which had substantially more than the normal 1%. Among
the many uses of jojoba oil cited here, the two most promising are the sulfurized oil as extreme-pressure/extreme-temperature
lubricant additive and the natural or refined oil formulated into cosmetic products.
"Jojoba seed is rich in liquid wax, commonly mistaken for " jojoba oil " (Van Boven et al., 1997). More than 60% of this mixture of esters contains cis-11-eicosenoic (jojobenoic) acid (C20) (Miwa 1984). Jojoba liquid wax contains a natural anti-oxidant postulated to be an allylic derivative of hydroxytoluene (Kampf et al., 1986). "
"It is a liquid unsaturated wax composed of esters of long carbon chain fatty acids (C 20 to C 22 ) and long carbon chains unsaturated alcohols (C 20 , C 22 ). More than 60% of JB esters contain cis-11-eicosenoic (jojobenoic) acid (C 20 ) (Miwa, 1984). The unsaturated fatty acid content is the reason for the liquid nature of JB. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emulgel topical formulation is a vehicle of potential for topical delivery of antifungal drugs.
The imidazole derivative antifungal drug, clotrimazole (CZ), was formulated into emulgels using two grades of hydrophobically modified co-polymers of acrylic acid, namely Pemulen TR1 and TR2. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their rheological properties, short- and long-term stability, in vitro release at 37°C. Microbiological evaluation of the formula showed that optimum stability and release was carried out to measure its antifungal activity.
All formulae showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with little thixotropy or antithixotropy. Five of the prepared formulae showed good physical stability under different treatment conditions. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) emulgels exhibited higher rate of CZ release than either jojoba oil (JB) or liquid paraffin-based emulgels. A selected formula containing JB together with a combination of Pemulen TR1 and TR2 showed excellent stability as well as high rate of CZ release. Microbiological evaluation of the selected formula containing similar amount of CZ revealed 1.2-folds increase in the antifungal activity compared to commercially available formulation.
Emulgel dosage form based on Pemulen polymeric emulsifier and JB is a promising vehicle for topical delivery of CZ and further in vivo animal studies are recommended.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 12/2010; 37(5):559-68. DOI:10.3109/03639045.2010.528768 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion.
Renewable Energy 06/2008; 33(6). DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2007.07.015 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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