Structural determination and uses of jojoba oil
ABSTRACT The predominating molecular species in jojoba oil iscis-13-docosenylcis-11-eicosenoate (erucyl jojobenoate), ranging from 31% to 45% of the extracted seed oil. Other alcohol/acid combinations contribute
to the C42 molecular chain length so that this fraction constitutes a low of 41% to a high of 57% of the total wax esters. The positions
of the exclusivelycis ethylenic bonds in the alcohol and acid moieties of the wax esters are 99% ω-9 and 1% ω-7. Only 2% of the alcohol and acid
moieties were saturated when analyzed after saponification of the oil. Triglycerides were detected by gas chromatography in
all of the more than 200 natural jojoba oil samples tested, a few of which had substantially more than the normal 1%. Among
the many uses of jojoba oil cited here, the two most promising are the sulfurized oil as extreme-pressure/extreme-temperature
lubricant additive and the natural or refined oil formulated into cosmetic products.
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ABSTRACT: The use of Jojoba Methyl Ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or LPG at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as the main fuel and Jojoba Methyl Ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic data of 100 engine cycle in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the Jojoba fuel with its improved properties than before has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion.
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ABSTRACT: Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax (SW) showed the most promising results and all SW samples from three different suppliers could make a gel with concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. Candelilla wax and rice bran wax also showed good gelation properties, which, however, varied with different suppliers. Gelation ability of a wax is significantly dependant on its purity and detailed composition. A wax ester with longer alkyl chains has significantly better gelation ability toward SBO than that with shorter alkyl chains indicating that the chain length of a component in a wax such as wax ester is an important factor for gelation ability. The SW–SBO organogel showed increased melting point with increased SW content, showing the melting point range from about 47 to 65 °C with 0.5–10 wt% SW. The effects of cooling rate on crystal size and firmness of a gel were investigated. The dependence of firmness on cooling rate was so significant that the desired texture of an organogel could be achieved by controlling the cooling rate in addition to controlling the amount of gelling agent. This research reveals that a small amount of food grade plant waxes including SW may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat.Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 04/2011; 89(4). · 1.62 Impact Factor