Components of royal jelly: I. Identification of the organic acids
ABSTRACT This present work characterizes the fatty acid constituents of the lipid fraction of royal jelly. Among the organic acids
found after fractionation by thin layer chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters, the following compounds were identified
by combined GC-MS: saturated and unsaturated linear fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated linear and branched dicarboxylic
acids, mono-and dihydroxy acids. The most common characteristic of the organic acids was that most contained 8 or 10 carbon
atoms, whether saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched.
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ABSTRACT: Social caste determination in the honey bee is assumed to be determined by the dietary status of the young larvae and translated into physiological and epigenetic changes through nutrient-sensing pathways. We have employed Illumina/Solexa sequencing to examine the small RNA content in the bee larval food, and show that worker jelly is enriched in miRNA complexity and abundance relative to royal jelly. The miRNA levels in worker jelly were 7-215 fold higher than in royal jelly, and both jellies showed dynamic changes in miRNA content during the 4(th) to 6(th) day of larval development. Adding specific miRNAs to royal jelly elicited significant changes in queen larval mRNA expression and morphological characters of the emerging adult queen bee. We propose that miRNAs in the nurse bee secretions constitute an additional element in the regulatory control of caste determination in the honey bee.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81661. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Royal jelly is a highly active natural biological substance secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). The main quality parameters of royal jelly composition are water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, ash, pH and acidity. The aim of this study is to compare physicochemical parameters in royal jelly samples from Romania and Bulgaria in order to assess whether there are any differences between the samples from the both countries. The following parameters: proteins by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent; sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) by HPLC; water by refractometer and direct drying; total acidity by titration with 0.1 N NaOH and pH–potentiometrically were measured in 35 Bulgarian and 34 Romanian royal jelly samples collected from different regions of both countries. The values obtained for parameters in samples from Romania are as follow: water 62.50±3.52%, proteins 13.04±1.87%, fructose 5.39±1.12%, glucose 5.41±1.45%, sucrose 1.19±0.67%, pH 3.99±0.09 and total acidity 3.78±0.53 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g. The samples from Bulgaria gave the following results: water 62.13±1.90%, proteins 15.83±2.58%, fructose 4.84±0.81%, glucose 4.51±1.05%, sucrose 1.92±1.21%, pH 3.85±0.18 and total acidity 3.90±1.42 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g. Higher levels of protein and sucrose and lower levels of fructose were found in Bulgarian royal jelly. Differences in climate between the two countries, different equipments used for analysis, even the methods used are the same and RJ intrinsic heterogeneity can influence the composition of the product.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The objectives of this study were to compare the hatchability, chick body and internal organs weights and plasma testosterone concentration of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on d 7 of incubation. 2. Fertile eggs (n =150) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5ml normal saline solution or normal saline and pure RJ. The eggs were randomly divided into five groups of 30 eggs each: NC, control eggs receiving no injection; ASA, air sac-injected eggs given normal saline solution; ARJ, air sac-injected eggs injected with pure RJ; YSA, yolk sac-injected eggs receiving normal saline solution; and YRJ, yolk sac-injected eggs given pure RJ. 3. Injection of RJ significantly decreased hatchability (46.7%) compared with injection of SA (68.3%). Hatchability was lower in ARJ (33.3 %) and YRJ (60.0%) groups than in the NC group (90.0%). Hatchability in ASA (70.0%) and YSA (66.66%) groups were comparable to the NC group. 4. In ovo injection of RJ into both sacs increased chicks' absolute and relative body, heart, liver and testes weights compared to the control group whereas plasma testosterone concentration was similar among the different groups. 5. It was concluded that in ovo injection of RJ may be an effective method to increase CWT and chicks' internal organ weights.British Poultry Science 05/2014; · 0.78 Impact Factor