This present work characterizes the fatty acid constituents of the lipid fraction of royal jelly. Among the organic acids
found after fractionation by thin layer chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters, the following compounds were identified
by combined GC-MS: saturated and unsaturated linear fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated linear and branched dicarboxylic
acids, mono-and dihydroxy acids. The most common characteristic of the organic acids was that most contained 8 or 10 carbon
atoms, whether saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched.
"Female caste determination has traditionally been ascribed to special properties of royal jelly, which is fed in copious amounts to prospective queen bee larvae, thereby ensuring attainment of the royal status, whereas the less sophisticated diet enjoyed by the rest of the brood leads to the worker bee fate . Careful analysis of the royal jelly , , , , ,  has failed to identify any specific, non-nutritional “queen-making” factor, and the prevailing view is that nutrient-sensing pathways , , ,  translate the dietary status of the larvae into differences in physiology and gene expression , , , , ,  that are ultimately fixed by epigenetic modifications of the larval genomes , , , , . Masaki Kamakura recently found that a specific factor in royal jelly, royalactin, drove queen development through an Egfr-mediated signaling pathway . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social caste determination in the honey bee is assumed to be determined by the dietary status of the young larvae and translated into physiological and epigenetic changes through nutrient-sensing pathways. We have employed Illumina/Solexa sequencing to examine the small RNA content in the bee larval food, and show that worker jelly is enriched in miRNA complexity and abundance relative to royal jelly. The miRNA levels in worker jelly were 7-215 fold higher than in royal jelly, and both jellies showed dynamic changes in miRNA content during the 4(th) to 6(th) day of larval development. Adding specific miRNAs to royal jelly elicited significant changes in queen larval mRNA expression and morphological characters of the emerging adult queen bee. We propose that miRNAs in the nurse bee secretions constitute an additional element in the regulatory control of caste determination in the honey bee.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81661. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081661 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The biological significance of ω- and ω-type oxidation of fatty acids has been reported in insects and plants. Lercker et al.64) reported that ω-hydroxy fatty acids were the most abundant components in royal jelly which is essential for biochemical and physiological importance of this substance. Royal jelly is produced by worker bees and fed to queen bees.64) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The author focuses on the biological significance of ω-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for β-oxidation of fatty acids when β-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ω-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ω-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ω- and (ω-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ω- and (ω-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ω-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described.(Communicated by Tamio Yamakawa, M.J.A.).
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Ser B Physical and Biological Sciences 10/2013; 89(8):370-382. DOI:10.2183/pjab.89.370 · 2.65 Impact Factor
"RJ contains proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and some free amino acids   . Proteins account for >50% of RJ dry weight   . RJ is one of the most popular healthy foods and claims various medical functions such as antibacterial , antioxidation , antitumor  and enhancing immune activity  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretory protein from the hypopharyngeal glands of nurse honeybee workers, which contains a variety of proteins of which major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are some of the most important. It plays important roles both for honeybee and human. Each family of MRJP 1-5 displays a string of modified protein spots in the RJ proteome profile, which may be caused by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of MRJPs. However, information on the RJ PTMs is still limited. Therefore, the PTM status of RJ was identified by using complementary proteome strategies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), shotgun analysis in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Phosphorylation was characterized in MRJP 1, MRJP 2 and apolipophorin-III-like protein for the first time and a new site was localized in venom protein 2 precursor. Methylation and deamidation were also identified in most of the MRJPs. The results indicate that methylation is the most important PTM of MRJPs that triggers the polymorphism of MRJP 1-5 in the RJ proteome. Our data provide a comprehensive catalog of several important PTMs in RJ and add valuable information towards assessing both the biological roles of these PTMs and deciphering the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of RJ for human health.
Journal of proteomics 06/2012; 75(17):5327-41. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.06.008 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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