Components of royal jelly: I. Identification of the organic acids
ABSTRACT This present work characterizes the fatty acid constituents of the lipid fraction of royal jelly. Among the organic acids
found after fractionation by thin layer chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters, the following compounds were identified
by combined GC-MS: saturated and unsaturated linear fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated linear and branched dicarboxylic
acids, mono-and dihydroxy acids. The most common characteristic of the organic acids was that most contained 8 or 10 carbon
atoms, whether saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched.
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- "RJ contains proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and some free amino acids   . Proteins account for >50% of RJ dry weight   . RJ is one of the most popular healthy foods and claims various medical functions such as antibacterial , antioxidation , antitumor  and enhancing immune activity  . "
ABSTRACT: Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretory protein from the hypopharyngeal glands of nurse honeybee workers, which contains a variety of proteins of which major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are some of the most important. It plays important roles both for honeybee and human. Each family of MRJP 1-5 displays a string of modified protein spots in the RJ proteome profile, which may be caused by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of MRJPs. However, information on the RJ PTMs is still limited. Therefore, the PTM status of RJ was identified by using complementary proteome strategies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), shotgun analysis in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Phosphorylation was characterized in MRJP 1, MRJP 2 and apolipophorin-III-like protein for the first time and a new site was localized in venom protein 2 precursor. Methylation and deamidation were also identified in most of the MRJPs. The results indicate that methylation is the most important PTM of MRJPs that triggers the polymorphism of MRJP 1-5 in the RJ proteome. Our data provide a comprehensive catalog of several important PTMs in RJ and add valuable information towards assessing both the biological roles of these PTMs and deciphering the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of RJ for human health.Journal of proteomics 06/2012; 75(17):5327-41. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.06.008 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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- "Royal jelly is a bee product secreted from the hypopharyngeal glands of young worker bees to be used in the feeding of young larvae and the adult queen bee (Lercker et al., 1981). Royal jelly has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities including antitumor (Townsend et al., 1959), antimicrobial (Blum et al., 1959), vasodilative and hypotensive activities, as well as growth stimulating and infection preventing, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory activities (Nagai and Inoue, 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Forty eight male Balb/c mice, each weighing 30–35 g, were used in the present study. The animals were divided into four equal groups. The first group served as the control group, and the second group was administered royal jelly at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw by gavage for a period of 7 days. The third group received 200 ppm fluoride, as sodium fluoride, for a period of 7 days, in drinking water. Lastly, the fourth group was given 200 ppm fluoride in drinking water, in association with royal jelly at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw by gavage, for a period of 7 days. At the end of the seventh day, blood samples were collected from all groups into heparinised and dry tubes, and liver samples were taken concurrently. Erythrocyte and liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were evaluated in the blood and tissue samples obtained. Furthermore, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein and albumin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alcaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were evaluated. In conclusion, fluoride was determined to cause adverse effects in mice, and the administration of royal jelly to these animals alleviated the adverse effects of fluoride.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2009; 47(6-47):1184-1189. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.008 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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- "1987). As far as we know, 9-oxodecanoic acid, 9-hydroxy- decanoic acid and 7-hydroxyoctanoic acid have been identified only in the mandibular glands of honeybees (Callow et al. 1964; Slessor et al. 1988; Plettner et al. 1996), and the latter two substances were detected in royal jelly (Lerker et al. 1981). Our results are, to our knowledge, the first identifications of these compounds in "
ABSTRACT: Ophrys flowers mimic virgin females of their pollinators, and thereby attract males for pollination. Stimulated by scent, the males attempt to copulate with flower labella and thereby ensure pollination. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids may be based on a few specific chemical compounds. Ophrys speculum flowers produce many volatiles, including trace amounts of (omega-1)-hydroxy and (omega-1)-oxo acids, especially 9-hydroxydecanoic acid. These compounds, which are novel in plants, prove to be the major components of the female sex pheromone in the scoliid wasp Campsoscolia ciliata, and stimulate male copulatory behaviour in this pollinator species. The specificity of the signal depends primarily on the structure and enantiomeric composition of the oxygenated acids, which is the same in wasps and in the orchids. The overall composition of the blend differs significantly between the orchid and its pollinator and is of secondary importance. 9-Hydroxydecanoic acid is a rarely occurring compound that until now has been identified only in honeybees. Contrary to the standard hypothesis that Ophrys flowers produce only 'second-class attractivity compounds' and are neglected once the pollinator females are present, we show that flowers are more attractive to the males than are their own females.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 04/2003; 270(1514):517-22. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2002.2271 · 5.29 Impact Factor