Article

Components of royal jelly: I. Identification of the organic acids

Lipids (Impact Factor: 2.56). 01/1981; 16(12):912-919. DOI: 10.1007/BF02534997

ABSTRACT This present work characterizes the fatty acid constituents of the lipid fraction of royal jelly. Among the organic acids
found after fractionation by thin layer chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters, the following compounds were identified
by combined GC-MS: saturated and unsaturated linear fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated linear and branched dicarboxylic
acids, mono-and dihydroxy acids. The most common characteristic of the organic acids was that most contained 8 or 10 carbon
atoms, whether saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched.

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    ABSTRACT: Royal jelly is a highly active natural biological substance secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). The main quality parameters of royal jelly composition are water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, ash, pH and acidity. The aim of this study is to compare physicochemical parameters in royal jelly samples from Romania and Bulgaria in order to assess whether there are any differences between the samples from the both countries. The following parameters: proteins by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent; sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) by HPLC; water by refractometer and direct drying; total acidity by titration with 0.1 N NaOH and pH–potentiometrically were measured in 35 Bulgarian and 34 Romanian royal jelly samples collected from different regions of both countries. The values obtained for parameters in samples from Romania are as follow: water 62.50±3.52%, proteins 13.04±1.87%, fructose 5.39±1.12%, glucose 5.41±1.45%, sucrose 1.19±0.67%, pH 3.99±0.09 and total acidity 3.78±0.53 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g. The samples from Bulgaria gave the following results: water 62.13±1.90%, proteins 15.83±2.58%, fructose 4.84±0.81%, glucose 4.51±1.05%, sucrose 1.92±1.21%, pH 3.85±0.18 and total acidity 3.90±1.42 ml 0.1 N NaOH/g. Higher levels of protein and sucrose and lower levels of fructose were found in Bulgarian royal jelly. Differences in climate between the two countries, different equipments used for analysis, even the methods used are the same and RJ intrinsic heterogeneity can influence the composition of the product.
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The objectives of this study were to compare the following: (1) hatchability, (2) chicks' body and internal organs weights, and (3) plasma gonadotropin levels of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on Day 7 of incubation. Fertile eggs (n ¼ 270) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5 mL normal saline solution consisting of four formulations (normal saline solution with antibiotics, ultrafiltrate RJ, pure RJ, and RJ with antibiotics). The eggs were randomly divided into nine groups of 30 eggs each: (i) C: the control eggs received no injection, (ii) ASA: air sac–injected eggs received normal saline solution with antibiotics, (iii) ARJ: air sac–injected eggs received pure RJ, (iv) ARJA: air sac–injected eggs received RJ with antibiotics, (v) ARJF: air sac–injected eggs received RJ ultrafiltrate solution, (vi) YSA: yolk sac–injected eggs received normal saline solution with antibiotics, and (vii) YRJ: yolk sac–injected eggs received pure RJ, (viii) YRJA: yolk sac–injected eggs received RJ with antibiotics, and (ix) YRJF: yolk sac–injected eggs received ultrafiltrate RJ solution. Hatch-ability rate was lower in ARJ (46.7%), ARJA (43.3%), ARJF (43.3%), and YRJF (46.7%) groups than in the control (80.0%; P < 0.05). Hatchability rate in ASA (70.0%), YSA (66.7%), YRJ (66.7%), and YRJA (63.3%) groups were comparable to the control (P > 0.05). In ovo injection of RJ and or RJ with antibiotics in both sacs increased chicks' body weight (CWT), heart weight (HWT), and liver weight (LWT) and FSH and LH levels compared with control (P < 0.05). CWT in YRJ (37.02 g), YRJA (37.03 g), ARJ (36.82 g), and ARJA (36.89 g) groups were higher than control (34.9 g; P < 0.05). Similarly, HWT significantly increased in YRJ (0.22 g), YRJA (0.21 g), ARJ (0.20 g), and ARJA (0.20 g) in comparison to control (0.18 g; P < 0.05). In addition, LWT were higher in YRJ (0.83 g), YRJA (0.82g), ARJ (0.81g), and ARJA (0.81g) than control (0.72 g; P < 0.05). Six hours post-hatch, the mean plasma FSH and LH levels in ARJ (1.13 and 2.80 mIu/mL), YRJ (1.32 and 3.36 mIu/mL), ARJA (1.23 and 2.95 mIu/mL), and YRJA (1.31 and 3.28 mIu/mL) groups were higher than in the control (0.56 and 1.48 mIu/mL, P < 0.05). We concluded that in ovo administration of RJ or RJ with antibiotics might be an effective method to increase CWT, chicks' internal organs weights, and LH and FSH secretion rate without deleterious effect on hatchability. However, further research should be con-ducted to determine the putative endocrine disruptive effects of RJ and its byproducts.
    Theriogenology 01/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor