Multiple Scattering of Waves by Random Distribution of Particles for Applications in Light Scattering by Metal Nanoparticles
ABSTRACT Electromagnetic scattering properties of particles are important issues for nanotechnology, terrestrial and planetary remote
sensing, biomedical sensing and microscopy, wireless communication, astrophysics, and optical engineering. Scattering by a
single particle is described by the Mie theory. For scattering by many particles, the classical theory assumes independent
scattering in which the scattering intensity is set equal to the sum of scattering intensities from each particle. The independent
scattering model is applied to calculate the phase matrix which is equal to the number density times the bistatic cross section
of a single particle. The phase matrix is then used in radiative transfer theory to treat multiple incoherent scattering.
The approach ignores the coherent wave interaction among the particles. The approach of independent scattering is particularly
not valid for dense media when there is a high concentration of particles. For this case, particles are in close proximity
of each other and the particles scatter collectively.