The Persian Gulf Basin: geological history, sedimentary formations, and petroleum potential. Lithology Miner Res

Faculty of Geology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moskva, Moscow, Russia
Lithology and Mineral Resources (Impact Factor: 0.4). 07/2006; 41(4):344-361. DOI: 10.1134/S0024490206040055

ABSTRACT The Persian Gulf Basin is the richest region of the World in terms of hydrocarbon resources. According to different estimates,
the basin contains 55–68% of recoverable oil reserves and more than 40% of gas reserves. The basin is located at the junction
of the Arabian Shield and Iranian continental block that belong to two different (Arabian and Eurasian) lithospheric plates.
Collision of these plates at the Mesozoic/Cenozoic boundary produced the Zagros Fold Belt and the large Mesopotamian Foredeep,
which is a member of the Persian Gulf Basin. During the most part of the Phanerozoic, this basin belonged to an ancient passive
margin of Gondwana, which was opened toward the Paleotethys Ocean in the Paleozoic and toward the Neotethys in the Mesozoic.
Stable subsidence and the unique landscape-climatic conditions favored the accumulation of a very thick sedimentary lens of
carbonate rocks and evaporites (up to 12–13 km and more). Carbonate rocks with excellent reservoir properties are widespread,
while the evaporites play the role of regional fluid seals. Organicrich rocks, which can generate liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
(HC), are present at different levels in the rock sequence.

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    • "Geologically, the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, also known as the Arabian Shelf, was formed by successive cycles of transgression and regression of the Gulf waters during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods (El- Naggar 1988). The Arabian Shelf currently comprises sedimentary rock strata that range from the Cambrian to the Quaternary periods (Abduljauwad 1994; Konyuhov and Maleki 2006). The strata dip gently at a slope of 1 m/km toward the east and northeast until they merge with the Arabian Gulf (Slater 1983). "
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    ABSTRACT: Compacted sand-expansive clay mixture with low hydraulic conductivity and appropriate shear strength is employed as liner systems for waste containment systems to prevent groundwater contamination by leachate from the waste. The aim of this study was to assess the shear strength behavior and swelling potentials of sand-attapulgite clay mixtures. The attapulgite clay used in this study was obtained from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia and was characterized as highly expansive. A detailed experimental program was devised to evaluate the effects of clay content (ranging between 0 and 60 %), initial molding conditions (optimum and wet-of-optimum), normal stress, and wetting conditions (as-compacted and inundated) on shear strength behavior. Also, the effects of clay content and initial molding conditions on the swelling potential of the mixture were evaluated. Test results revealed different trends for the shear stress-strain curves, signifying that different structural arrangements resulted from the use of different clay contents and molding conditions. Furthermore, test results identified an optimum clay content of 30 % which yielded the maximum shear strength; beyond this, a significant reduction in the shear strength of the sand-attapulgite clay mixture was observed. Finally, the shear strengths of sand-attapulgite clay mixtures were compared to those of sand-bentonite mixtures.
    Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 05/2014; 74(2). DOI:10.1007/s10064-014-0653-1 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    • "The Gulf basin is one of the richest regions in terms of hydrocarbon resources. According to different estimations, this basin contains 55–68% of recoverable oil reserves and more than 40% of gas reserves of the World (Konyuhov and Maleki, 2006). Albian Kazhdumi Formation is an excellent source rock in the Dezful Embayment, southwestern Iran (Bordenave and Huc, 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Different techniques including Rock–Eval pyrolysis, organic petrography, elemental analysis, biomarker studies and isotopic composition were carried out for characterization of the Cretaceous Kazhdumi Formation in the offshore SW Iran. A fair to good source rock potential is suggested based on the total organic carbon contents. The distribution of biomarker parameters are identified by low pristane/phytane, high C29/C30 hopane, low C19/C23 tricyclic terpanes, high C24 tetracyclic/C26 tricyclic terpane, low Ts/Tm, low diasterane/sterane, relatively similar distributions of C27 and C29 regular steranes and their predominance over C28 sterane. The δ13C values of kerogen are within the range of -26 to -27.7‰. All the biomarker parameters reveal that marine carbonate is the main depositional environment. Nevertheless, marine shale is also present in minor amounts. These results together with HI values and H/C atomic ratios indicate that the organic matter is Type II and mixed Types II-III kerogens. The C29 sterane 20S/(20S+20R) and ββ/(αα+ββ) ratios which have not reached to the equilibrium along with observed vitrinite reflectance and relatively low Tmax values show that the samples has not still reached to the peak of hydrocarbon generation. Furthermore, thermal and burial history models validate that the Kazhdumi Formation is at early mature stage
    EAGE - Third EAGE Exploration Workshop, Abu Dhabi; 04/2014
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    • "(1) Source rocks; (2) reservoir rocks; (3) impermeable rocks: salts (a), clay (b); (4) petroleum reservoirs; (5) washout zones. After Bordenave, 2002; Konyuhov and Maleki, 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: The Middle Cretaceous–Early Miocene Petroleum System is the most important hydrocarbon system in the Zagros Basin. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, organic petrography and thermal 1D modeling were performed on wells located in the southern Dezful Embayment. The results provide information on organic matter quantity and quality as well as burial and thermal histories of source rocks in the framework of the basin evolution. A total of 98 cutting samples from BK-4, KK-1, SI-4 and RS-2 wells were pyrolyzed by Rock-Eval 6. Also thermal maturity of organic matter derived from Tmax of Rock-Eval was interpreted in conjunction with vitrinite reflectance data (50 samples). The TOC values of the sequences mainly range from 0.5 to 2.5 wt.%. The average values of Tmax and vitrinite reflectance indicate that samples from the wells have reached maturities corresponding to early/mid oil generation. Reconstruction of thermal history suggests that various steady heat flow values (62, 54, 50 and 56 mW/m2 for BK-4, KK-1, SI-4 and RS-2 wells, respectively) resulted in the best fit between the calculated and the observed vitrinite reflectance and bottom hole temperatures in our modeling. Thus, values of heat flow decrease from 60 mW/m2 in the southern basin margin to about 50 mW/m2 along the NE of the Dezful Embayment and the Zagros Basin. According to our modeling results, the onset of oil generation from source rocks in the studied area occurs well after deposition of the seal rock and formation of traps, ensuring entrapment and preservation of migrated hydrocarbons.
    International Journal of Coal Geology 12/2013; 120:1–14. DOI:10.1016/j.coal.2013.08.008 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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