In response to water deficit, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plants. This ABA serves as a signal for a multitude
of processes, including regulation of gene expression. ABA accumulated in response to water deficit signals cellular as well
as whole plant responses playing a role in the pattern of gene expression throughout the plant. Although the function of genes
regulated by ABA during stress are currently poorly understood, a number of these genes may permit the plant to adapt to environmental
"). Hydrophilins are defined by a Gly content greater than 6% and a hydrophilicity index greater than 1 (Garay-Arroyo et al. 2000). In plants, hydrophilins are mainly represented by the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins that are expressed in desiccating maturing seeds and in vegetative organs during drought stress (Bray et al. 1997). The exact function of hydrophilins remains unclear, while in vitro experiments suggest that they could protect enzyme activity during water-limiting conditions, including drought or cold stress (Reyes et al. 2005, 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We surveyed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes LeNCED1 and pLC30-15, involved in an ABA (abscisic acid) signalling pathway, in two closely related tomato species Solanum peruvianum and Solanum chilense. Our six population samples (three for each species) cover a range of mesic to very dry habitats. The ABA pathway plays an important role in the plants' response to drought stress. LeNCED1 is an upstream gene involved in ABA biosynthesis, and pLC30-15 is a dehydrin gene positioned downstream in the pathway. The two genes show very different patterns of nucleotide variation. LeNCED1 exhibits very low nucleotide diversity relative to the eight neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, pLC30-15 exhibits higher levels of nucleotide diversity and, in particular in S. chilense, higher genetic differentiation between populations than the reference loci, which is indicative of local adaptation. In the more drought-tolerant species S. chilense, one population (from Quicacha) shows a significant haplotype structure, which appears to be the result of positive (diversifying) selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: - ions and to some extent Cl - and SO 4 2 - of Mg 2+ and nutrient imbalance caused by excess of Na + and Cl - ions. Salinity stress response is multigenic, as a number of processes i n- volved in the tolerance mechanism are affected, such as var ious compatible solutes/osmolytes, polyamines, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence mecha- nism, ion transport and compartmentalization of inj u- rious ions. Various genes/cDNAs encoding proteins involved in the above-mentioned processes have been identified and isolated. The role of genes/cDNAs e n- coding proteins involved in regulating other genes/ pro- teins, signal transduction process involving hormones like ABA, JA and polyamines, and strategies to i mprove salinity stress tolerance have also been di scussed. EXCESS amount of salt in the soil adversely affects plant growth and development. Nearly 20% of the world's cul- tivated area and nearly half of the world's i rrigated lands are affected by salinity 1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings in our laboratory showed that in citrus cells, salt treatment induced the accumulation of mRNA and a protein corresponding to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), an enzyme active in the cellular antioxidant system. The protein and its encoding gene, csa, were isolated and characterized, and the expected enzymatic activity was demonstrated (G. Ben-Hayyim et al., 1993, Plant Sci. 88: 129-140; D. Holland et al., 1993, Plant Mol. Biol. 21: 923-927; D. Holland et al., 1994, FEBS Lett. 337: 52-55; T. Beeor-Tzahar et al., 1995, FEBS Lett. 366: 151-155). In an attempt to find out how salt induces the expression of an antioxidant enzyme, the regulation of PHGPX in citrus cells was studied at both the mRNA transcript and the protein levels. A high and transient response at the csa mRNA level was observed after 4-7 h of exposing salt-sensitive cells to NaCl, or abscisic acid, whereas no response could be detected in the salt-tolerant cells under the same conditions. tert-Butylhydroperoxide, a substrate of PHGPX, induced csa mRNA transcripts after only 2 h, and abolished the differential response between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant cells. On the basis of these results and those obtained under heat and cold stresses, it is suggested that csa is directly induced by the substrate of its encoded enzyme PHGPX, and that salt induction occurs mainly via the production of reactive oxygen species and hydroperoxides.
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