Do anticonvulsants reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives?
ABSTRACT Women in our area with epilepsy who were also taking oral contraceptives were identified. Of 82 patients taking oral contraceptives, 41 had used both anticonvulsants and oral contraceptives for a total of 955 months. Three documented oral contraceptive (pill) failures occurred during this period, whereas the expected number of 0.12 (relative risk, 25; 95% confience interval, 5 to 73). No pill failures were observed in 2,278 months among women with epilepsy who were taking oral contraceptives but who were not taking anticonvulsants at this time. Thus our data support the suggestion that there is an increased rate of pill failure among women taking anticonvulsants. In view of this diminished effectiveness, the advisability of using oral contraceptives rather than one of the other forms of contraception when anticonvulsant medication is being used concurrently may need to be reevaluated.
Article: Hormones and antiepileptic drugsActa Neurologica Scandinavica 12/2000; 102:5-52. · 2.44 Impact Factor
Article: Contraceptive methods and epilepsy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Os autores apresentam seis casos ilustrativos de pacientes em uso de métodos contraceptivos hormonais e DIU (dispositivo intrauterino). É feita também uma revisão crítica dos aspectos fisiopatogênicos. Os autores concluem que: 1 - Parece não haver dúvidas sobre a influência dos hormônios ovarianos na epilepsia. 2 - Não há previsibilidade quanto às conseqüências do uso de contraceptivos (hormonais e DIU) em pacientes com epilepsia catamenial. 3 - Há necessidade ainda de estudos complementares que elucidem melhor os fatores de risco na utilização de métodos contraceptivos pelas pacientes epilépticas.Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 12/1983; 41(4):332-336. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interphase momentum transport in heterogeneous gas–solid systems with multi-scale structure is of great importance in process engineering. In this article, lattice Boltzmann simulations are performed on graphics processing units (GPUs), the computational power of which exceeds that of CPUs by more than one order of magnitude, to investigate incompressible Newtonian flow in idealized multi-scale particle–fluid systems. The structure consists of a periodic array of clusters, each constructed by a bundle of cylinders. Fixed pressure boundary condition is implemented by applying a constant body force to the flow through the medium. The bounce-back scheme is adopted on the fluid–solid interfaces, which ensures the no-slip boundary condition. The structure is studied under a wide range of particle diameters and packing fractions, and the drag coefficient of the structure is found to be a function of voidages and fractions of the clusters, besides the traditional Reynolds number and the solid volume fractions. Parameters reflecting multi-scale characters are, therefore, demonstrated to be necessary in quantifying the drag force of heterogeneous gas–solid system. The numerical results in the range 0.1≤Re≤10 and 0Particuology 08/2011; 9(4):365-373. · 1.65 Impact Factor