Microsatellite DNA somaclonal variation in micropropagated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)
ABSTRACT Microsatellite DNA markers of ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were used to examine somaclonal variation in randomly selected micropropagated plantlets derived from three different Populus tremuloides donor trees (genotypes). The plantlets were obtained from tissue cultures of dormant vegetative buds, and those derived from the same donor tree, grown in the greenhouse, did not exhibit any sign of visible morphological variation. No microsatellite DNA variation was observed among 13 somaclones of one tree and 4 somaclones of another tree at eight of the ten SSR loci. However, despite the small number of micropropagated progeny per tree sampled, microsatellite DNA variation was detected among the plantlets derived from the same donor trees at two SSR loci. The primer pair for the SSR locus PTR5 revealed somaclonal variation in 1 out of the 13 plantlets obtained from one genotype, while the primer pair for the PTR2 SSR locus revealed somaclonal variation in one out of the four plantlets obtained from another genotype. The variation at the PTR2 locus resulted in the appearance of a new allele of increased size, possibly due to an addition of the repeat units, while the variation at the PTR5 locus resulted in the appearance of third allele, presumably due to the presence of a single extra chromosome or duplication of a chromosomal segment. These results demonstrate that the genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants of P. tremuloides cannot always be assured and somaclonal variation can occur even when tissues of well organized vegetative buds are used for tissue cultures; that somaclonal variation cannot always be detected at the gross morphological level; and that microsatellite DNA markers provide useful and sensitive markers for determining the clonal fidelity and somaclonal variation in P. tremuloides.
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ABSTRACT: The commercial multiplication of a large number of diverse plant species represents one of the major success stories of urilizing tissue culture technology profitably. Micropropagation has now become a multibillion dollar industry, practised all over the world. Of the various methods used to micropropagate plants, somatic embryogenesis and enhanced axillary branching have become the principal methods of multiplication. Long-term benefits of this enterprise, however, lie in the production of clonally uniform plants. The concept of genetic uniformity among micropropagated plants derived through organized meristems was exploded by several convincing reports of the incidence of somaclonal variation at morphological, cytological (chromosome number and structure), cytochemical (genome size), biochemical (proteins and isozymes), and molecular (nuclear and organellar genomes) levels. Somaclonal variation is not limited to any particular group of plants; it has been reported, for example, in ornamentals, plantation crops, vegetable and food crops, forest species and fruit trees. The upsurge of these reports, facilitated to a large extent by the technical developments made in molecular biology, is a matter of great concern for any micropropagation system. The economic consequences of somaclonal variation can be enormous in forest trees and woody plants, as they have long life cycles. Therefore, somaclonal variation has to be dispensed with if large-scale micropropagation of diverse plant species is to become not only successful but also accepted by end-users. In the light of the various factors (genotype, ploidy level, in vitro culture age, explant and culture type, etc.) that lead to somaclonal variation of divergent genetic changes at the cellular and molecular levels, genetic analysis of micropropagated plants using a multidisciplinary approach, especially at the DNA sequence level, initially and at various cultural stages, is essential. The results obtained at early multiplication stages from these tests could help in modifying the protocol/s for obtaining genetically true-to-type plants, and ultimate usage by entrepneneurs without any ambiguity.In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 08/2000; 36(5):319-330. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined intraspecific chloroplast (cp) DNA variation within Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. maximowiczii by restriction fragment analysis using 16 restriction endonucleases and six heterologous probes of cloned Petunia cpDNA fragments. All three Populus species showed intraspecific cpDNA variation, which was intra- and inter-varietal in P. deltoides, intervarietal in P. nigra, and origin-specific in P. maximowiczii. Two varieties of P. deltoides, var deltoides and var occidentalis, showed distinct cp genomes/DNA. Three distinct cp genomes/DNA, separated by a loss or gain of 1 EcoRV restriction site and/or 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), were observed among the individuals of P. deltoides var deltoides. Within P. nigra, cpDNA of var italica was distinct from that of vars nigra and plantierensis by one RFLP and by a loss or gain of one BamHI restriction site. Populus maximowiczii clones of Chinese origin were separated from those of Japanese origin by a gain or loss of one ClaI restriction site in their cpDNA. The estimate of nucleotide substitutions per site in cpDNA was 0.07% between two varieties of P. deltoides, 0.05% between var italica and var nigra or plantierensis of P. nigra, and 0.01% between Japanese and Chinese accessions of P. maximowiczii.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 03/1995; 90(3-4):317-23. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have identified, isolated, and characterized microsatellite/simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by screening partial genomic libraries. We have also examined the compatibility and use of the P. tremuloides SSR primers to resolve microsatellites in other Populus species. Fourteen microsatellites were identified from 1600 clones screened. The TC/AG microsatellites were the most abundant. A total of 29 alleles were detected in 36 P. tremuloides individuals at the four SSR loci (two each of di- and tri-nucleotide repeats) characterized. The number of alleles at the SSR loci ranged from 5 to 11, with an average of 7.25 alleles per locus, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.82, with a mean of 0.46 per locus. Although the highest polymorphism was observed for a dinucleotide SSR locus, the trinucleotide SSR loci showed substantial polymorphism. There were 34 unique multilocus genotypes among the 36 P. tremuloides individuals examined, and 89% of the individuals had unique multilocus genotypes. Two pairs of SSR primers were successful in PCR, amplifying genomic DNA and resolving microsatellites of comparable size from Populus deltoides, P. nigra, P.×canadensis, and P. maximowiczii. The microsatellite DNA markers developed could be used for clonal fingerprinting, certification of controlled crosses, genome mapping, marker-assisted early selection, genetic diversity assessments, and conservation and sustainable management of poplar genetic resources.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/1998; 96(6):950-956. · 3.66 Impact Factor