Host range expansion of honey bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the bumble bee, Bombus huntii
ABSTRACT Here we provide the first evidence that Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), one of the most prevalent honey bee viruses, can cause
an infection in bumble bees, Bombus huntii, and that the BQCV infection could spread to different tissues of bumble bees. The detection of negative strand RNA of BQCV,
an indicator of active virus replication, in the gut of B. huntii suggests that virus particles replicate within the gut and then cross the gut lining to other tissues through hemolymph circulation.
The observation of active replication of the BQCV in the gut, together with the fact that BQCV was more widespread in the
body of field-collected bees than that of lab-reared bees, implies a possible association between the foraging activities
of bumble bees and virus transmission. The fact that bumble bees and honey bees are able to share nectar and pollen resources
in the same field suggests that geographical proximity of two host species could play a role in host range breadth of BQCV.
Keywordshost range–bumble bee–
–Black queen cell virus
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ABSTRACT: Pathogens and parasites represent significant threats to the health and well-being of honeybee species that are key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, in China. Our study provides evidence of infections of A. cerana by pathogenic Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Nosema ceranae, and C. bombi species that have been linked to population declines of European honeybees, A. mellifera, and bumble bees. However, the prevalence of DWV, a virus that causes widespread infection in A. mellifera, was low, arguably a result of the greater ability of A. cerana to resist the ectoprasitic mite Varroa destructor, an efficient vector of DWV. Analyses of microbial communities from the A. cerana digestive tract showed that Nosema infection could have detrimental effects on the gut microbiota. Workers infected by N. ceranae tended to have lower bacterial quantities, with these differences being significant for the Bifidobacterium and Pasteurellaceae bacteria groups. The results of this nationwide screen show that parasites and pathogens that have caused serious problems in European honeybees can be found in native honeybee species kept in Asia. Environmental changes due to new agricultural practices and globalization may facilitate the spread of pathogens into new geographic areas. The foraging behavior of pollinators that are in close geographic proximity likely have played an important role in spreading of parasites and pathogens over to new hosts. Phylogenetic analyses provide insights into the movement and population structure of these parasites, suggesting a bidirectional flow of parasites among pollinators. The presence of these parasites and pathogens may have considerable implications for an observed population decline of Asian honeybees.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e47955. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens' long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. Here we provide the evidence that BQCV and DWV infect wild species of honey bees, Apis florea and Apis dorsata. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these viruses might have moved from A. mellifera to wild bee species and that genetic relatedness as well as the geographical proximity of host species likely play an important role in host range of the viruses. The information obtained from this present study can have important implication for understanding the population structure of bee virus as well as host-virus interactions.Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 01/2012; 109(1):156-9. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The black queen cell virus (BQCV), a picorna-like honeybee virus, was first isolated from queen larvae and pupae of honeybees found dead in their cells. BQCV is the most common cause of death in queen larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of two Apis cerana and three Apis mellifera BQCV genotypes collected from honeybee colonies in different regions of South Korea, central European BQCV genotypes, and a South African BQCV reference genotype was performed on a partial helicase enzyme coding region (ORF1) and a partial structural polypeptide coding region (ORF2). The phylogeny based on the ORF2 region showed clustering of all the Korean genotypes corresponding to their geographic origin, with the exception of Korean Am str3 which showed more similarity to the central European and the South African reference genotype. However, the ORF1-based tree exhibited a different distribution of the Korean strains, in which A. cerana isolates formed one cluster and all A. mellifera isolates formed a separate cluster. The RT-PCR assay described in this study is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection and classification of BQCV strains from various regions of Korea. BQCV infection is present in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. With this in mind, the present study examined the transmission of honeybee BQCV infections between A. cerana and A. mellifera.Virus Genes 12/2012; · 1.84 Impact Factor