Laboratory Scale Photobioreactors
ABSTRACT Growing phototrophic microorganisms consume light energy. These microorganisms most often suffer from light deficiency because of exponential decrease in the energy of light passing through an absorbing medium. Therefore, effective distribution of light within the cultures is needed for their intensive cultivation. This is possible in special devices called photobioreactors. The photobioreactors described in the literature are classified into several types according to their geometric features. Their advantages and drawbacks are analyzed. Criteria applicable to comparison of different photobioreactors are specified.
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ABSTRACT: Biological methods of hydrogen production are preferable to chemical methods because of the possibility to use sunlight, CO2 and organic wastes as substrates for environmentally benign conversions, under moderate conditions. By combining different microorganisms with different capabilities, the individual strengths of each may be exploited and their weaknesses overcome. Mechanisms of bio-hydrogen production are described and strategies for their integration are discussed. Dual systems can be divided broadly into wholly light-driven systems (with microalgae/cyanobacteria as the 1st stage) and partially light-driven systems (with a dark, fermentative initial reaction). Review and evaluation of published data suggests that the latter type of system holds greater promise for industrial application. This is because the calculated land area required for a wholly light-driven dual system would be too large for either centralised (macro-) or decentralised (micro-) energy generation. The potential contribution to the hydrogen economy of partially light-driven dual systems is overviewed alongside that of other bio-fuels such as bio-methane and bio-ethanol.Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 04/2012; 8(2):149-185. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some green microalgae have the ability to harness sunlight to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen from water. This renewable, carbon-neutral process has the additional benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide and accumulating biomass during the algal growth phase. We document the details of a novel one-litre vertical flat-plate photobioreactor that has been designed to facilitate green algal hydrogen production at the laboratory scale. Coherent, non-heating illumination is provided by a panel of cool-white light-emitting diodes. The reactor body consists of two compartments constructed from transparent polymethyl methacrylate sheets. The primary compartment holds the algal culture, which is agitated by means of a recirculating gas-lift. The secondary compartment is used to control the temperature of the system and the wavelength of radiation. The reactor is fitted with probe sensors that monitor the pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and optical thickness of the algal culture. A membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system has been developed and incorporated into the reactor for dissolved hydrogen measurement and collection. The reactor is hydrogen-tight, modular and fully autoclaveable.International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 01/2011; 36(11):6578-6591. · 3.55 Impact Factor
- 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-974-5