Salinity and salt composition effects on seed germination and root length of four sugar beet cultivars

Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz, Tebriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
Biologia (Impact Factor: 0.83). 09/2007; 62(5):562-564. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0111-7

ABSTRACT Salinization is one of the most important factors affecting agricultural land in the world. Salinization occurs naturally
in arid and semiarid regions where evaporation is higher than rainfall. Sugar beet yield declines with an increase in salinity,
but the sensitivity to salts varies with salt composition in water and sugar beet growth stage. The aim of this study was
to determine the effect of water salinity levels and salt composition on germination and seedling root length of four sugar
beet cultivars (PP22, IC2, PP36, and 7233). The experiments were undertaken with irrigation water with two salt compositions
(NaCl alone and mixture of MgSO4 + NaCl + Na2SO4 + CaCl2) in three replicates. Thirteen salinity levels with electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water ranging from 0 to
30 dS/m were applied to each cultivar in both experiments. Seed germination percentage and seedling root length growth were
determined in 13 days. Statistical analysis revealed that germination and root length were significantly affected by salt
composition, cultivars and salinity levels. Regardless of salt composition, seed germination and seedling root length were
significantly affected by the irrigation water with EC up to 8 dS/m and 4 dS/m, respectively. Except for cultivar PP22, the
adverse effect of salinity of the irrigation water on seed germination and seedling root length was higher for NaCl alone
than for the salt mixture, which refers to lower salt stress in field conditions with natural salt composition.

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    • "While, lowest averages of these characters was recorded from sown Strube cultivar under without salinity. These results are in accordance with those reported by Jafarzadeh and Aliasgharzad (2007), Jamil and Rha (2007), Khavari-Nejad et al. (2008), Hajiboland et al. (2009) and Saadat et al. (2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The response of six sugar beet genotypes (Raspoly, Nada, Strube, Almaz, Toro, Oskarpoly) under seven salinity levels (distilled water as control, 1500, 3000, 45000, 6000, 7500 and 9000 ppm NaCl) and soaking in gibberellic acid levels were studied on germination parameters. An experiment with factorial arrangement was conducted by using randomize complete block design with four replications. Seed soaking in GA3 significantly affected final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), coefficient velocity (CV), seedling vigor index (SVI), energy of germination (EG), emergence rate (ER) and speed of germination (SG). Highest averages of FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG, were produced from soaking seed in 200 ppm of GA3. Moreover, highest averages of MGT were recorded from soaking sugar beet seed in the control treatment. Sugar beet cultivars significantly differed in FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. Highest averages of FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG were recorded with sown Raspoly cultivar. Increasing salinity concentrations from 0 to 9,000 ppm significantly decreased FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. While, MGT increased with increasing salinity concentrations. Results of means comparison showed that in all genotypes, there was a decrease in germination percentage due to salinity stress increment and maximum germination percentage was delayed. The interaction between cultivars and seed soaking in GA3 levels significantly affected FGP, MGT, CV and SVI. The interaction between seed soaking in GA3 levels and salinity concentrations significantly affected FGP, MGT and SVI.
    Sugar Tech 06/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s12355-013-0252-7 · 0.58 Impact Factor
    • "The mechanisms of the phytotoxicity are difficult to ascertain, due the inherent complexities of a wastewater sample. Nevertheless, both phenols and salts have both been shown to be responsible for delaying seed germination [23] [24], and are likely to be involved here. In addition to effects on MTG, the germination index (an indicator of early plant growth) was significantly reduced with increasing WWW concentration . "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity.
    Journal of hazardous materials 08/2010; 180(1-3):63-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.02.069 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant growth does not response to the application of generally recommended levels of potassium (K) fertilizer in the soils with expandable three layer clay minerals. In the soils rich in illite and vermiculite clay minerals with high cation exchange capacity, a major part of applied K is fixed and becomes unavailable to plants immediately. It is known that several members of the family Chenopodiaceae such as sugar beet, spinach, red beet etc. are capable to use sodium (Na) as an osmoticum for which 95% of total acquired K is required. We hypothesized that Na is able to substitute K to a large extent in sugar beet nutrition without affecting the plant growth and beet quality. We assumed that in K-fixing soils it would be possible to replace a huge amount of K fertilizer with adequate amount of Na fertilizer, which may lead to the development of an interesting fertilizer strategy for sugar beet in K-fixing soils. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the limiting processes when K was substituted by Na in K-fixing soils. Three soil and two nutrient solution experiments were conducted to test the abovementioned hypothesis. In the first soil experiment, soils from three locations (i.e. Kleinlinden, Giessen and Trebur) with different K-fixing capacity were tested and sugar beet plants were grown in Ahr pots under natural climatic conditions (April 2005 to September 2005, Giessen, Germany) and harvested at maturity. Three treatments were used i.e. control (no K and Na fertilizer), potassium treatment (K2SO4 fertilizer was applied according to K-fixing capacity of soil) and in third treatment NaCl was applied equivalent to regular K fertilization. Soil Kleinlinden was tested again in another experiment where sugar beet plants were grown in containers (169 kg soil container-1) with the same treatments as in the previous Ahr pot experiment, except potassium treatment. Potassium was not applied according to K-fixing capacity of soil, rather according to regular K fertilization. A field experiment was conducted on the Trebur soil (similar to the soil used in the Ahr pot experiment). The treatments were the same as in the container experiment; nevertheless an extra treatment was used where a huge amount (i.e. equivalent to half K-fixing capacity of the soil) of K was applied. The results of all the experiments revealed that application of Na fertilizer significantly improved the plant growth relative tothe control. However, white sugar yield in Na treatment was similar to that in K treatment. Moreover, Na eliminated the K deficiency symptoms in the plant leaves, but application of Na fertilizer decreased the calcium (Ca) concentration in the expanding leaves due to reduced Ca uptake and Ca translocation from root to shoot, which was investigated in nutrient solution experiments with Na and K treatments. Despite many fruitful findings from the earlier studies on Na nutrition of plants, in practical agriculture Na is not used as a nutrient. We conclude that Na may substitute K to a large extent in sugar beet nutrition without affecting the plant growth and beet quality, and soils with higher K-fixing capacity and illite and/or vermiculite clay minerals are more favorable for this substitution. Es wurde beobachtet, dass die allgemein empfohlene Applikation von K-Düngemittel das Pflanzenwachstum in Böden mit aufgeweiteten Dreischicht-Tonmineralen nicht beeinflusst. Die Böden, reich an den Tonmineralen Illit und Vermiculit haben eine hohe CEC und der größte Teil des gedüngten K wurde fixiert, sodass es für die Pflanzen nicht verfügbar war. Es ist bekannt, dass viele Arten der Familie der Chenopodiaceae, wie Zuckerrübe, Spinat, Rote Beete, etc. in der Lage sind, Na als Osmoticum zu verwenden hierfür werden ansonsten 95% des aufgenommenen K benötigt. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen war es herauszufinden, ob Na in der Lage ist, K in der Ernährung von Zuckerrüben zu ersetzen, ohne das Pflanzenwachstum oder die Rübenqualität zu beeinflussen. Des Weiteren wurde überlegt, ob in K-fixierenden Böden ein großer Anteil des K-Düngers durch Na-Dünger ersetzt werden kann, was zu einer interessanten Düngerstrategie für Zuckerrüben führen könnte. Zunächst wurden die limitierenden Einflüsse erforscht, die auftreten, wenn K durch Na ersetzt wird. Drei Boden- und zwei Nährlösungsversuche wurden zur Überprüfung der Hypothese durchgeführt. Für den ersten Bodenversuch wurden drei verschiedene Böden (Klein Linden, Gießen und Trebur) mit unterschiedlicher K-Fixierungskapazität verwendet. Die Zuckerrüben wuchsen in Ahrgefäßen bei natürlicher Witterung (April 2005 bis September 2005, Gießen, Deutschland) und wurden zur Reife geerntet. Drei Varianten wurden getestet, eine Kontrollvariante (kein K- und Na-Dünger), eine Kaliumvariante (K2SO4-Applikation in Übereinstimmung mit der K-Fixierungskapazität) und eine Natriumvariante (NaCl entsprechend einer normalen K-Düngung). Ein weiteres Experiment wurde mit Kleinlindener Boden angelegt. Hier wurden die Zuckerrüben in Containern (169 kg Boden Container-1) unter den gleichen Bedingungen und Varianten mit Ausnahme der Kaliumvariante angezogen. Hierzu wurde K in praxisüblicher Menge dazugegeben. Ebenso wurde ein Feldversuch in Trebur auf dem gleichen Boden wie in den Ahrgefäßen durchgeführt. Die Varianten waren die gleichen wie im Containerversuch, allerdings mit einer zusätzlichen Variante, die eine enorme Mengean K gedüngt bekam (entsprechend der halben K-Fixierungskapazität). Die Ergebnisse von aller Versuchen zeigen, dass eine Na-Düngung das Pflanzenwachstum relativ zu- Kontrolle signifikant erhöht, jedoch der Zuckerertrag der gleiche ist, wie in der Kaliumvariante. Darüber hinaus konnte Na die K-Mangelsymptome an Blättern verhindern; dennoch wurde die Ca-Konzentration vor allem in wachsenden Blättern beeinflusst. Daher wurde, ein Nährlösungsversuch in einer Klimakammer mit kontrollierten Bedingungen angelegt. Es zeigte sich, dass durch das Ersetzen von K durch Na die Ca-Konzentration im Spross signifikant verringert wurde ohne das Wachstum der Pflanzen zu stören. Die Ca-Aufnahme und Ca-Translokation im Xylemsaft waren als Folge der Substitution ebenfalls reduziert. Bisher wird in der praktischen Landwirtschaft Na nicht als Pflanzennährstoff verwendet. Abschließend stellen wir fest, dass Na fähig ist, K in der Ernährung von Zuckerrüben zu ersetzen, ohne dass das Wachstum der Pflanze oder die Qualität beeinflusst wird. Böden mit einer hohen K-Fixierungskapazität und einem hohen Anteil an Illit bzw. Vermiculit eignen sich besser für diese Substitution.
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