Salinity and salt composition effects on seed germination and root length of four sugar beet cultivars

Biologia (Impact Factor: 0.7). 09/2007; 62(5):562-564. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0111-7

ABSTRACT Salinization is one of the most important factors affecting agricultural land in the world. Salinization occurs naturally
in arid and semiarid regions where evaporation is higher than rainfall. Sugar beet yield declines with an increase in salinity,
but the sensitivity to salts varies with salt composition in water and sugar beet growth stage. The aim of this study was
to determine the effect of water salinity levels and salt composition on germination and seedling root length of four sugar
beet cultivars (PP22, IC2, PP36, and 7233). The experiments were undertaken with irrigation water with two salt compositions
(NaCl alone and mixture of MgSO4 + NaCl + Na2SO4 + CaCl2) in three replicates. Thirteen salinity levels with electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water ranging from 0 to
30 dS/m were applied to each cultivar in both experiments. Seed germination percentage and seedling root length growth were
determined in 13 days. Statistical analysis revealed that germination and root length were significantly affected by salt
composition, cultivars and salinity levels. Regardless of salt composition, seed germination and seedling root length were
significantly affected by the irrigation water with EC up to 8 dS/m and 4 dS/m, respectively. Except for cultivar PP22, the
adverse effect of salinity of the irrigation water on seed germination and seedling root length was higher for NaCl alone
than for the salt mixture, which refers to lower salt stress in field conditions with natural salt composition.

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    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity is a common problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Plants cope with soil salinity and salinity in irrigation water in several different ways. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse to study the mechanism by which Eucalyptus species cope with salinity at the seedling stage. Partitioning of carbon into structural (SCC) and non-structural compounds (NSCC) was determined using a modified ethanol and water extraction process with oven-dried leaves, stems and roots of the seedlings that were harvested after four months of treatment. The results showed that increasing salinity level in the irrigation water significantly increased the NSCC in leaves and stems of the seedlings. These increases in NSCC were concomitant with decreases in SCC. The ratio of NSCC/SCC increased in leaves and stems of Eucalyptus seedlings with increasing salinity concentration in irrigation water. On the other hand, this ratio was greater in the roots of E. camaldulensis seedlings than in those of either E. microtheca or E. intertexta seedlings. The results indicated that Eucalyptus seedlings adapt to changes in salinity by adjusting their carbon partitioning. This study, therefore, provides further understanding of how seedlings deal with salt stress through physiological responses. INTRODUCTION to salinity results from osmotic and ionic effects [8].
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    ABSTRACT: Alluvial soils with illite and vermiculite clay minerals are highly potassium (K)-fixing. Such soils have been reported to require a huge amount of K fertilization for optimum plant growth. For halophytic plants such as sugar beet, sodium (Na) can be an alternative to K under such conditions. This study was conducted to investigate the possible substitution of K by Na fertilization with reference to K-fixing soils. Three soils, i.e., Kleinlinden (subsoil), Giessen (alluvial), and Trebur (alluvial), differing in K-fixing capacities, were selected, and sugar beet plants were grown in Ahr pots with 15 kg soil pot–1. Three treatments (no K and Na, K equal to K-fixing capacity of soil, and Na equivalent to regular K fertilization) were applied. In a second experiment, containers (90 cm × 40 cm × 40 cm) were used with 170 kg Kleinlinden soil each, and one sugar beet plant per container was grown. In both experiments, plants were grown till beet maturity, and beets were analyzed for sucrose concentration and other quality parameters such as α-amino nitrogen to calculate white-sugar yield with the New Brunswick formula. The results showed that growth and quality of sugar beet were not affected by Na application, and ultimately there was no decrease in white-sugar yield. Moreover, the soils with more K-fixing capacity were more suitable for K substitution by Na. It is concluded that Na can substitute K in sugar beet nutrition to a high degree and soils with high K-fixing capacity have more potential for this substitution.
    Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 12/2009; 173(1):127 - 134. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to analyze the salt transport affected by roots and its effects on soil salinity in an experimental irrigated field newly established in an alluvial valley of the Yellow River in China, spatial distribution of ions contained in waters, soils and crops relevant to these phenomena were evaluated there. During the intensive surveys conducted in year 2007–2008, the Yellow River water, irrigation canal water, groundwater, field soils and crops, etc. were sampled and their chemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity, concentrations of ions Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl−, SO42−and NO3− were measured. Irrigation seemed to cause increases in the concentrations of ions Na+, Cl− and SO42− in the groundwater. Although those were also major ions contained in the field soil, the soil was classed as saline but not sodic according to the standard classification. On the other hand, K+, which is one of the major essential nutrients for plant growth, was highly concentrated in the crops, while Na+ was not concentrated because of crop’s poor ability to absorb it. The ion concentration within the plant body seemed to be reflected by the active and selective ion uptake by roots and the transpiration stream. Furthermore, salt accumulation in the surface-irrigated field largely depended on the upward transport of water and ions in the soil profile affected by root absorption capacity. The information obtained in this study will contribute to the development of scientific methods for sustainable and effective plant production in irrigated fields.
    Biologia 06/2009; 64(3):570-574. · 0.70 Impact Factor


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