Salinity and salt composition effects on seed germination and root length of four sugar beet cultivars

Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz, Tebriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
Biologia (Impact Factor: 0.7). 09/2007; 62(5):562-564. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0111-7

ABSTRACT Salinization is one of the most important factors affecting agricultural land in the world. Salinization occurs naturally
in arid and semiarid regions where evaporation is higher than rainfall. Sugar beet yield declines with an increase in salinity,
but the sensitivity to salts varies with salt composition in water and sugar beet growth stage. The aim of this study was
to determine the effect of water salinity levels and salt composition on germination and seedling root length of four sugar
beet cultivars (PP22, IC2, PP36, and 7233). The experiments were undertaken with irrigation water with two salt compositions
(NaCl alone and mixture of MgSO4 + NaCl + Na2SO4 + CaCl2) in three replicates. Thirteen salinity levels with electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water ranging from 0 to
30 dS/m were applied to each cultivar in both experiments. Seed germination percentage and seedling root length growth were
determined in 13 days. Statistical analysis revealed that germination and root length were significantly affected by salt
composition, cultivars and salinity levels. Regardless of salt composition, seed germination and seedling root length were
significantly affected by the irrigation water with EC up to 8 dS/m and 4 dS/m, respectively. Except for cultivar PP22, the
adverse effect of salinity of the irrigation water on seed germination and seedling root length was higher for NaCl alone
than for the salt mixture, which refers to lower salt stress in field conditions with natural salt composition.

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    ABSTRACT: The response of six sugar beet genotypes (Raspoly, Nada, Strube, Almaz, Toro, Oskarpoly) under seven salinity levels (distilled water as control, 1500, 3000, 45000, 6000, 7500 and 9000 ppm NaCl) and soaking in gibberellic acid levels were studied on germination parameters. An experiment with factorial arrangement was conducted by using randomize complete block design with four replications. Seed soaking in GA3 significantly affected final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), coefficient velocity (CV), seedling vigor index (SVI), energy of germination (EG), emergence rate (ER) and speed of germination (SG). Highest averages of FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG, were produced from soaking seed in 200 ppm of GA3. Moreover, highest averages of MGT were recorded from soaking sugar beet seed in the control treatment. Sugar beet cultivars significantly differed in FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. Highest averages of FGP, MGT, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG were recorded with sown Raspoly cultivar. Increasing salinity concentrations from 0 to 9,000 ppm significantly decreased FGP, CV, SVI, EG, ER and SG. While, MGT increased with increasing salinity concentrations. Results of means comparison showed that in all genotypes, there was a decrease in germination percentage due to salinity stress increment and maximum germination percentage was delayed. The interaction between cultivars and seed soaking in GA3 levels significantly affected FGP, MGT, CV and SVI. The interaction between seed soaking in GA3 levels and salinity concentrations significantly affected FGP, MGT and SVI.
    Sugar Tech 06/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s12355-013-0252-7 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity is a common problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Plants cope with soil salinity and salinity in irrigation water in several different ways. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse to study the mechanism by which Eucalyptus species cope with salinity at the seedling stage. Partitioning of carbon into structural (SCC) and non-structural compounds (NSCC) was determined using a modified ethanol and water extraction process with oven-dried leaves, stems and roots of the seedlings that were harvested after four months of treatment. The results showed that increasing salinity level in the irrigation water significantly increased the NSCC in leaves and stems of the seedlings. These increases in NSCC were concomitant with decreases in SCC. The ratio of NSCC/SCC increased in leaves and stems of Eucalyptus seedlings with increasing salinity concentration in irrigation water. On the other hand, this ratio was greater in the roots of E. camaldulensis seedlings than in those of either E. microtheca or E. intertexta seedlings. The results indicated that Eucalyptus seedlings adapt to changes in salinity by adjusting their carbon partitioning. This study, therefore, provides further understanding of how seedlings deal with salt stress through physiological responses. INTRODUCTION to salinity results from osmotic and ionic effects [8].
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    ABSTRACT: Salinity is the most serious threat to agriculture and to the environment in many parts of the world. It is estimated that over 6% of the world's land is affected by either salinity or sodicity. Using saline lands for conventional agriculture requires either improving the soil or enhancing the salt tolerance limit of field crops, the majority of which cannot survive with the levels of average soil salinity prevailing in the fields. Plants exposed to salt stress undergo changes in their environment. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Essential pathways include the synthesis of osmotically active metabolites, specific proteins and certain free radical scavenging enzymes that control ions and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals or chaperones. The ability of plants to detoxify radicals under conditions of salt stress is probably the most critical requirement. Many salt-tolerant species accumulate metabolites which play crucial dual roles as osmoprotectants and as radical scavengers. In this paper, plant responses to salinity stress are reviewed with emphasis on physiological and biochemical mechanisms of salt tolerance. Understanding the biochemical and physiological plant responses to salinity may favour the identification of new salt-tolerant cultivars or species and it provides a framework to identify breeding targets for improving salt tolerance. This review may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the ecological significance of salt stress.


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