Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica

Euphytica (Impact Factor: 1.39). 05/2011; 179(1):143-160. DOI: 10.1007/s10681-011-0361-x


Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common and widely distributed of the three wheat rusts. Losses from leaf rust are usually less damaging than
those from stem rust and stripe rust, but leaf rust causes greater annual losses due to its more frequent and widespread occurrence.
Yield losses from leaf rust are mostly due to reductions in kernel weight. Many laboratories worldwide conduct leaf rust surveys
and virulence analyses. Most currently important races (pathotypes) have either evolved through mutations in existing populations
or migrated from other, often unknown, areas. Several leaf rust resistance genes are cataloged, and high levels of slow rusting
adult plant resistance are available in high yielding CIMMYT wheats. This paper summarizes the importance of leaf rust in
the main wheat production areas as reflected by yield losses, the complexity of virulence variation in pathogen populations,
the role cultivars with race-specific resistance play in pathogen evolution, and the control measures currently practiced
in various regions of the world.

Triticum aestivum

Triticum turgidum

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    • "Researchers in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, South Africa, and others countries have reported races using both their own nomenclatures and the North American Nomenclature. However, breeders from India and Australia are still using their own binomial systems of nomenclature (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011; Terefe et al., 2014). Physiologic races of P. triticina have been studied in Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute in Ukraine since the 1960's on an old standard differential set. "

    Chilean journal of agricultural research 11/2015; 75(4):443-450. DOI:10.4067/S0718-58392015000500009 · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    • "tritici Eriks. and Henn.) which attacks the leaf blades, although it can also infect the leaf sheath and glumes in highly susceptible cultivars (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011). Leaf rust disease decreased numbers of kernels per head and lower kernel weights (Roelfs et al., 1992; Marasas et al.,2004; Kolmer et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is one of the main diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Egypt, causing up to 50% of yield losses. Genetic resistance is the most economic and effective means of reducing yield losses caused by the disease. However, breeding genotypes for disease resistance is a continuous process and plant breeders need to add new effective sources to their breeding materials. Among 42 Egyptian wheat varieties screened for leaf rust resistance, only 9 varieties (Sakha94, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Gemmiza10, Gemmiza11, Sids12, Sids13, Misr1 and Misr2) exhibited seedling and adult plant resistance during 2010/11 and 2011/12 growing seasons. Out of 41 monogenic line (Lr genes) tested, only 13 Lr genes (Lr9, Lr10, Lr11, Lr16, Lr18, Lr19, Lr26, Lr27, Lr29, Lr30, Lr34, Lr42 and Lr46) exhibited seedling resistance while, 9 Lr genes (Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr29, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34 and Lr44) showed adult plant resistance at both growing seasons. This result may add a depth of their resistance to be exploited as good sources of resistance. Partial resistance traits of wheat seedlings were present in 12 varieties (Sids12, Misr2, Sakha94, Misr1, Sids13, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Sids7, Beniswef4, Sakha93, Gemmiza11 and Sids6), recording the longest incubation and latent period. However, 10 varieties (Sakha8, Sakha93, Giza144, Giza155, Giza156, Giza157, Sids4, Sids5, Sids8 and Beniswef4) were marked as having high level of partial resistance of adult plant, recording ACI less than 20%, AUDPC less than 332.5 and r-value less than 0.101. The highest significant loss percentages were found in susceptible wheat cultivars i.e. Gemmiza7, Sakha61 and Giza164 (12.24%, 12.10% and 9.08%, respectively). However, insignificant loss percentages were found in resistant cultivars i.e. Giza168 (1.87%), Misr2 (2.44%) Sakha94 (2.46%). Inverse relation was present between the disease level and grain yield. Cultivating of resistant cultivars such as Misr2, Giza168 and Sakha94 is recommended to escape heavy yield losses wreaked by the leaf rust disease.
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    • "Oleifera L.); late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.); leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); and net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These fungal diseases were chosen because their infection times are spread over the year, making the results potentially applicable to other pathosystems, and because each of them causes frequent crop losses of economic impact in France and throughout northern Europe (Aubertot et al., 2006; Cooke et al., 2011; Huerta-Espino et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Generic models can be relevant tools for exploring and comparing the impact of climate change on the development of crop diseases. The infection process of foliar pathogens is mainly driven by surface wetness duration (SWD) and temperature. Hence, our objective was to propose a generic response function that attempts to be robust (adapted to the infection process of many foliar pathogens), and easy to apply (well-informed parameters in the literature). This model was then used to quantify the impact of climate change on four foliar fungal pathogens, in the French context. First, the infection was modeled as a function of, both, temperature and SWD, using a simplified version of the sigmoidal Weibull equation. The upper asymptote of this equation was described by linear functions between four cardinal temperatures. Second, this model was fitted and validated with published data from 19 controlled laboratory studies. Especially low relative root mean square errors (RRMSE) were obtained for species in the genera Colletotrichum (about 0.11) and Puccinia (about 0.23). Last, the model was used to assess the CC impact on the infection rate and frequency of Albugo occidentalis, Phytophthora ramorum, Cercospora carotae and Botrytis cinerea. The simulations showed different trends, according to the four pathogens and climate sites: an increased frequency of infection and of the rate of infection of A. occidentalis and P. ramorum, in northern France, and the maintaining or the decrease of the frequency and rate of infection, at more or less long-term, for C. carotae and B. cinerea, in southern France. The importance of microclimate in the canopy, to explain the infection process, could justify coupling this generic model of infection to a mechanistic model based on energy balances, to simulate temperature and SWD, within the crop cover, rather than at the weather station scale.
    Acta horticulturae 02/2015; 1068(1068):171-178. DOI:10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1068.21
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