Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica

Euphytica (Impact Factor: 1.39). 05/2011; 179(1):143-160. DOI: 10.1007/s10681-011-0361-x

ABSTRACT Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common and widely distributed of the three wheat rusts. Losses from leaf rust are usually less damaging than
those from stem rust and stripe rust, but leaf rust causes greater annual losses due to its more frequent and widespread occurrence.
Yield losses from leaf rust are mostly due to reductions in kernel weight. Many laboratories worldwide conduct leaf rust surveys
and virulence analyses. Most currently important races (pathotypes) have either evolved through mutations in existing populations
or migrated from other, often unknown, areas. Several leaf rust resistance genes are cataloged, and high levels of slow rusting
adult plant resistance are available in high yielding CIMMYT wheats. This paper summarizes the importance of leaf rust in
the main wheat production areas as reflected by yield losses, the complexity of virulence variation in pathogen populations,
the role cultivars with race-specific resistance play in pathogen evolution, and the control measures currently practiced
in various regions of the world.

Triticum aestivum

Triticum turgidum

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Available from: S.C. Bhardwaj, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "tritici Eriks. and Henn.) which attacks the leaf blades, although it can also infect the leaf sheath and glumes in highly susceptible cultivars (Huerta-Espino et al., 2011). Leaf rust disease decreased numbers of kernels per head and lower kernel weights (Roelfs et al., 1992; Marasas et al.,2004; Kolmer et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is one of the main diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Egypt, causing up to 50% of yield losses. Genetic resistance is the most economic and effective means of reducing yield losses caused by the disease. However, breeding genotypes for disease resistance is a continuous process and plant breeders need to add new effective sources to their breeding materials. Among 42 Egyptian wheat varieties screened for leaf rust resistance, only 9 varieties (Sakha94, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Gemmiza10, Gemmiza11, Sids12, Sids13, Misr1 and Misr2) exhibited seedling and adult plant resistance during 2010/11 and 2011/12 growing seasons. Out of 41 monogenic line (Lr genes) tested, only 13 Lr genes (Lr9, Lr10, Lr11, Lr16, Lr18, Lr19, Lr26, Lr27, Lr29, Lr30, Lr34, Lr42 and Lr46) exhibited seedling resistance while, 9 Lr genes (Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr29, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34 and Lr44) showed adult plant resistance at both growing seasons. This result may add a depth of their resistance to be exploited as good sources of resistance. Partial resistance traits of wheat seedlings were present in 12 varieties (Sids12, Misr2, Sakha94, Misr1, Sids13, Giza168, Gemmiza9, Sids7, Beniswef4, Sakha93, Gemmiza11 and Sids6), recording the longest incubation and latent period. However, 10 varieties (Sakha8, Sakha93, Giza144, Giza155, Giza156, Giza157, Sids4, Sids5, Sids8 and Beniswef4) were marked as having high level of partial resistance of adult plant, recording ACI less than 20%, AUDPC less than 332.5 and r-value less than 0.101. The highest significant loss percentages were found in susceptible wheat cultivars i.e. Gemmiza7, Sakha61 and Giza164 (12.24%, 12.10% and 9.08%, respectively). However, insignificant loss percentages were found in resistant cultivars i.e. Giza168 (1.87%), Misr2 (2.44%) Sakha94 (2.46%). Inverse relation was present between the disease level and grain yield. Cultivating of resistant cultivars such as Misr2, Giza168 and Sakha94 is recommended to escape heavy yield losses wreaked by the leaf rust disease.
    02/2015; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2015.01.001
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    • "Oleifera L.); late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.); leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); and net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These fungal diseases were chosen because their infection times are spread over the year, making the results potentially applicable to other pathosystems, and because each of them causes frequent crop losses of economic impact in France and throughout northern Europe (Aubertot et al., 2006; Cooke et al., 2011; Huerta-Espino et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2013). To achieve these objectives, we first implemented a simple generic infection function based on existing functions and providing daily infection efficiency values from air temperature and leaf wetness duration (LWD), which is defined as the length of time free water (regardless of origin) remains on leaves. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since weather has a major influence on the occurrence and development of crop diseases, valuable insight toward future agricultural planning emerges with assessment tools to evaluate fungal disease pressure and crop regional suitability under projected future climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop two climatic indicators, the average infection efficiency (AIE) and the number of infection days (NID), to quantify the potential effects of weather on the intensity and occurrence of pathogen infection. First, a simple and continuous infection function accounting for daily temperature and leaf wetness duration variations was implemented. The function was then parameterized from published data sets for five major contrasting fungal diseases affecting crops in Northern France: phoma of oilseed rape, late blight of potato, downy mildew of grape, leaf rust of wheat and net blotch of barley. Finally, AIE and NID were calculated for the recent past (1970–2000) and the future A1B climate scenario (2070–2100). An overall decrease in the risk of infection was shown for potato late blight and downy mildew of grapevine for all months during the period when the host plant is susceptible to infection. There were greater differences for the other three diseases, depending on the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity. The future climate would result in a later onset of disease and higher infection pressure in late autumn. In spring, for brown rust of wheat and net blotch of barley, the climatic risk for infection is expected to occur earlier but would result in lower infection pressure in May. These findings highlighted the need to use an infra-annual (monthly or seasonally) scale to achieve a relevant analysis of the impact of climate change on the infection risk. The described indicators can easily be adapted to other pathogens and may be useful for agricultural planning at the regional scale and in the medium term, when decision support tools are required to anticipate future trends and the associated risks of crop diseases.
    Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 12/2014; 197:147–158. DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2014.07.020 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Wheat is liable host three rust diseases, stripe, leaf and stem rust. Leaf rust disease is widely distributed of the three wheat rusts and has become more serious diseases [2]. "
    Journal of Plant Sciences 09/2014; 2(5):145 - 151. DOI:10.11648/j.jps.20140205.11
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