Article

[Pain and physical (in)activity in relation to cognition and behaviour in dementia] - Pijn en bewegen in relatie tot cognitie en gedrag bij dementie

Tijdschrift voor gerontologie en geriatrie 04/2012; 40(6):270-278. DOI: 10.1007/BF03088521

ABSTRACT Ouderen met een dementie kunnen geconfronteerd worden met een afname in lichamelijke activiteit. Er bestaat een positieve
relatie tussen lichamelijke activiteit en cognitie. Ofschoon de causaliteit van deze relatie bij ouderen met een gevorderde
dementie nog moet worden aangetoond, komt uit vooral dierexperimenteel onderzoek naar voren welke schadelijke effecten niet bewegen zou kunnen hebben op het gedrag van ouderen met een dementie. Patiënten met een dementie die vanwege agitatie en
onrust geïmmobiliseerd worden, kunnen een toename in agitatie en onrust gaan vertonen. Een andere oorzaak van verminderd of
niet bewegen kan pijn zijn. Pijn kan zelfs toenemen bij dementie door neuropathologische veranderingen in het centraal zenuwstelsel.

Er is toenemende (inter)nationale belangstelling voor de ontwikkeling van een meer betrouwbare diagnostiek en behandeling
van pijn, voor de causaliteit van de relatie tussen pijn en lichamelijke (in)activiteit en voor de causaliteit van de relatie
tussen lichamelijke (in)activiteit en cognitie. In dit artikel zullen de verschillende onderwerpen in deze volgorde besproken
worden.

Older persons with dementia may become confronted with a decline in the level of physical activity. Indeed, a positive relationship
between physical activity and cognition has been demonstrated. Although the causality of this relationship needs to be confirmed
in advanced dementia, particularly animal experimental studies show the possible negative influence of restrained physical
activity on behavior of patients with dementia. Patients with dementia, who get immobilized because of agitation and restlessness,
may show an increase in these two symptoms. Another cause for reduced physical activity or inactivity may be the experience
of pain. Pain experience may even increase in dementia by neuropathological changes in the central nervous system.

There is an increasing (inter)national interest for the development of a more reliable assessment and treatment of pain, for
the causality of the relationship between pain and physical (in)activity, and for the causality of the relationship between
physical (in)activity and cognition in dementia. In the present paper, the various topics will be addressed in this order.

lichamelijke activiteit-pijn-cognitie-gedrag-dementiephysical activity-pain-cognition-behavior-dementia

0 Bookmarks
 · 
229 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regional hypoperfusion, associated with a reduction in cerebral metabolism, is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to cognitive decline. Cerebral perfusion and hence cognition can be enhanced by exercise. The present review describes first how the effects of exercise on cerebral perfusion in AD are mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and tissue-type plasminogen activator, the release of which is regulated by NO. A conclusion of clinical relevance is that exercise may not be beneficial for the cognitive functioning of all people with dementia if cardiovascular risk factors are present. The extent to which cardiovascular risk factors play a role in the selection of older people with dementia in clinical studies will be addressed in the second part of the review in which the effects of exercise on cognition are presented. Only eight relevant studies were found in the literature, emphasizing the paucity of studies in this field. Positive effects of exercise on cognition were reported in seven studies, including two that excluded and two that included patients with cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that cardiovascular risk factors do not necessarily undo the beneficial effects of exercise on cognition in cognitively impaired people. Further research is called for, in view of the limitations of the clinical studies reviewed here.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/2006; 30(4):562-75. · 10.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exercise training for patients with Alzheimer disease combined with teaching caregivers how to manage behavioral problems may help decrease the frailty and behavioral impairment that are often prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease. To determine whether a home-based exercise program combined with caregiver training in behavioral management techniques would reduce functional dependence and delay institutionalization among patients with Alzheimer disease. Randomized controlled trial of 153 community-dwelling patients meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for Alzheimer disease, conducted between June 1994 and April 1999. Patient-caregiver dyads were randomly assigned to the combined exercise and caregiver training program, Reducing Disability in Alzheimer Disease (RDAD), or to routine medical care (RMC). The RDAD program was conducted in the patients' home over 3 months. Physical health and function (36-item Short-Form Health Survey's [SF-36] physical functioning and physical role functioning subscales and Sickness Impact Profile's Mobility subscale), and affective status (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia). At 3 months, in comparison with the routine care patients, more patients in the RDAD group exercised at least 60 min/wk (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-6.39; P =.01) and had fewer days of restricted activity (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.08-8.95; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group also had improved scores for physical role functioning compared with worse scores for patients in the RMC group (mean difference, 19.29; 95% CI, 8.75-29.83; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group had improved Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia scores while the patients in the RMC group had worse scores (mean difference, -1.03; 95% CI, -0.17 to -1.91; P =.02). At 2 years, the RDAD patients continued to have better physical role functioning scores than the RMC patients (mean difference, 10.89; 95% CI, 3.62-18.16; P =.003) and showed a trend (19% vs 50%) for less institutionalization due to behavioral disturbance. For patients with higher depression scores at baseline, those in the RDAD group improved significantly more at 3 months on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (mean difference, 2.21; 95% CI, 0.22-4.20; P =.04) and maintained that improvement at 24 months (mean difference, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.14-4.17; P =.04). Exercise training combined with teaching caregivers behavioral management techniques improved physical health and depression in patients with Alzheimer disease.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2003; 290(15):2015-22. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Participation in leisure activities has been associated with a lower risk of dementia. It is unclear whether increased participation in leisure activities lowers the risk of dementia or participation in leisure activities declines during the preclinical phase of dementia. We examined the relation between leisure activities and the risk of dementia in a prospective cohort of 469 subjects older than 75 years of age who resided in the community and did not have dementia at base line. We examined the frequency of participation in leisure activities at enrollment and derived cognitive-activity and physical-activity scales in which the units of measure were activity-days per week. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to evaluate the risk of dementia according to the base-line level of participation in leisure activities, with adjustment for age, sex, educational level, presence or absence of chronic medical illnesses, and base-line cognitive status. Over a median follow-up period of 5.1 years, dementia developed in 124 subjects (Alzheimer's disease in 61 subjects, vascular dementia in 30, mixed dementia in 25, and other types of dementia in 8). Among leisure activities, reading, playing board games, playing musical instruments, and dancing were associated with a reduced risk of dementia. A one-point increment in the cognitive-activity score was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 0.93 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 0.97]), but a one-point increment in the physical-activity score was not (hazard ratio, 1.00). The association with the cognitive-activity score persisted after the exclusion of the subjects with possible preclinical dementia at base line. Results were similar for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In linear mixed models, increased participation in cognitive activities at base line was associated with reduced rates of decline in memory. Participation in leisure activities is associated with a reduced risk of dementia, even after adjustment for base-line cognitive status and after the exclusion of subjects with possible preclinical dementia. Controlled trials are needed to assess the protective effect of cognitive leisure activities on the risk of dementia.
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2003; 348(25):2508-16. · 54.42 Impact Factor