Article

Saponins in Calendula officinalis L. – Structure, Biosynthesis, Transport and Biological Activity

Phytochemistry Reviews (Impact Factor: 2.89). 06/2005; 4(2):151-158. DOI: 10.1007/s11101-005-4053-9

ABSTRACT Trends in research on Calendula officinalis L. saponins performed in Department of Plant Biochemistry at Warsaw University are reviewed. Calendula officinalis, a well known medicinal plant, contains significant amounts of oleanane saponins, which form two distinct series of related Trends in research on Calendula officinalis L. saponins performed in Department of Plant Biochemistry at Warsaw University are reviewed. Calendula officinalis, a well known medicinal plant, contains significant amounts of oleanane saponins, which form two distinct series of related
compounds, called “glucosides” and “glucuronides” according to the structure of the respective precursor. Both series differ compounds, called “glucosides” and “glucuronides” according to the structure of the respective precursor. Both series differ
in the pathway of their biosynthesis and further metabolism, i.e. the rate of formation and stages of possible degradation; in the pathway of their biosynthesis and further metabolism, i.e. the rate of formation and stages of possible degradation;
distribution in the single cell and in the whole plant, including accumulation sites; and the possible physiological role distribution in the single cell and in the whole plant, including accumulation sites; and the possible physiological role
played in the plant according to appropriate biological activities. played in the plant according to appropriate biological activities.

2 Followers
 · 
302 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic herb growing in the forests of India, China, Central Europe, and some tropical areas. The study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional claim of C. Officinalis on asthma. In the present study, methanol extract of whole plants was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening and antiasthmatic activity on different animals. Subjects and Methods: The asthmatic activity was evaluated by histamine‑ or acetylcholine‑induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, compound 48/80‑induced mast cell degranulation in wistar rats, histamine‑induced constriction on isolated guinea pig trachea, and ovalbumin‑induced sensitization in mice at different dose levels of C. Officinalis. The preconvulsion dyspnoea time at 0 th and 7 th days at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg in guinea pig, the percentage of granulated and degranulated mast cell of at the dose of 600, 800, 1000 μg/mL in rats, muscular contraction at the dose of 600, 800, and 1000 μg/mL on isolated guinea pig trachea and the inflammatory cell count, that is, eosinophils, neutrophills, lymphocytes, macrophages, interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑5, and immunoglobulin‑E (IgE) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the dose levels of 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg in mice were evaluated and compared with respective control groups. Results: Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, saponin, terpenoids, lignins, and phenolic compounds in the extract. In addition, the treatment of methanolic extract of C. officinalis (MECO) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the bronchospasm induced by histamine or acetylcholine in guinea pigs, degranulation mast cell in rats, histamine‑induced constriction on isolated guinea pig trachea, and the level of inflammatory cells as compared with inducer groups. The antiasthmatic activity was potentiated in all the doses in dose‑dependent manner. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity may be due to the presence of above phytoconstituents by antihistaminic, anticholinergic, antispasmodic, and mast cell stabilizing property.
    04/2014; 4(2). DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.129595
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our study sought to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of oleanolic acid as well as the neural mechanisms involved. Animal models such as barbiturate sleep-induction, light-dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test were conducted. Male Albino Swiss mice were treated orally with vehicle 10 mL/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg, imipramine 15 mg/kg, diazepam 1 mg/kg or oleanolic acid 5-40 mg/kg. Pretreatment (intraperitoneal) of animals with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 20 mg/kg, 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4- (2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190) 0.5 mg/kg, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) 100 mg/kg or α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) 100 mg/kg, WAY100635 (WAY) 0.3 mg/kg, prazosin (PRAZ) 1 mg/kg, yohimbine 2 mg/kg as well as monoamine oxidase assay and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) quantification were carried out. Oleanolic acid potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturate and demonstrated an anxiolytic effect in both the light-dark box and elevated plus maze. This effect was not reversed by PTZ. Acute and/or chronic oral treatment of mice with oleanolic acid (5-20 mg/kg) elicited an antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test without interfering with the locomotor activity. The antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid was attenuated by NAN-190, AMPT, PCPA, WAY and PRAZ. Although monoamine oxidase activity remained unaltered by oleanolic acid, chronic administration of oleanolic acid augmented hippocampal BDNF level. These findings demonstrate multiple mechanisms of the anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 06/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1177/0269881114536789 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant cell culture is traditionally viewed as a unique artifi cially created biological system representing a heterogenous population of dedifferentiated cells. This system undergoes a continuous process of autoselection based on the intensity and stability of cell proliferation. We discuss here the details of formation and regulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plant cell in vitro based on literature survey and our research. Obviously, secondary metabolism differs in cell culture compared to the plant per se , because in cell culture metabolites are synthesized and compart-mentalized within a single heterotrophic cell with sparse or underdeveloped vacu-oles and plastids. For example, in plant cell cultures isoprenoid biosynthesis via MVA pathway was found to be more active than via plastid-localized MEP pathway. Also, it was hypothesized that cell cultures preferably produce metabolites, which promote cell proliferation and growth. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea produced mainly furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides) in the cell cultures of various Panax species are represented mainly by Rg-and Rb-groups. Rb ginsenosides are predominantly found as malonyl-esters that may infl uence their intracellular localization. Despite the difference in the isoprenoid composition in plant and cell culture the latter became an attractive source of phytochemicals as an alternative to plant harvesting. We provide in this chapter the guidelines to biotechnological production of plant isoprenoids using plant cell cultures and discuss the optimal methods of bioreactor-based cultivation and cryopreservation of plant cell collections.
    Production of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds Using Bioreactor Technology, Edited by K.-Y. Paek et al, 01/2014: chapter Isoprenoid Production via Plant Cell Cultures: Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Scaling-Up to Bioreactors: pages 563-623; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Full-text

Download
103 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014