Advances in the Modelling of Motorcycle Dynamics

Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus
Multibody System Dynamics (Impact Factor: 1.74). 09/2004; 12(3):251-283. DOI: 10.1023/B:MUBO.0000049195.60868.a2


Starting from an existing advanced motorcycle dynamics model, which allows simulation of reasonably general motions and stability, modal and response computations for small perturbations from any trim condition, improvements are described. These concern (a) tyre/road contact geometry, (b) tyre shear force and moment descriptions, as functions of load, slip and camber, (c) tyre relaxation properties, (d) a new analytic treatment of the monoshock rear suspension mechanism with sample results, (e) parameter values describing a contemporary high performance machine and rider, (f) steady-state equilibrium and power checking and (g) steering control. In particular, the Magic Formula motorcycle tyre model is utilised and complete sets of parameter values for contemporary tyres are derived by identification methods. The new model is used for steady turning, stability, design parameter sensitivity and response to road forcing calculations. The results show the predictions of the model to be in general agreement with observations of motorcycle behaviour from the field and they suggest that frame flexibility remains an important design and analysis area, despite improvements in frame designs over recent years. Motorcycle rider parameters have significant influences on the behaviour, with results consistent with a commonly held view, that lightweight riders are more likely to suffer oscillation problems than heavyweight ones.

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    • "We will focus mainly on control systems, with some references to control-oriented modeling. The reader who is interested in the multibody modeling and analysis of singletrack vehicle dynamics is referred to the excellent resources provided by Cossalter [2], Schwab and Meijaard [3], [4], Sharp [5], [6], and others [7]. This paper is an attempt to rationally organize the state of the art on motorcycle dynamics control. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reduction of hardware costs and the availability of smaller, lighter electromechanical actuators have led to the development of numerous control systems for powered two wheelers (PTW). Although the community working on PTW dynamics control is smaller than the community addressing automotive control, a considerable number of contributions are available. This paper presents a review on the control of PTW, and anticipates future research and industrial trends. This paper proposes a reasoned classification of different approaches based on the controlled vehicle dynamics, separating between control systems dealing with the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamics and then presents an analysis of the state-of-the-art of each control problem. A section is then devoted to the control of narrow track tilting vehicles that share many features with PTW.
    IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 08/2015; 20(4):1-12. DOI:10.1109/TMECH.2014.2382717 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    • "The in-plane and out-of-plane modes in straight running conditions are uncoupled for small perturbations and they can be studied separately. On the other hand, when the motorcycle is cornering, the out-of-plane (lateral) modes and the in-plane modes associated with tyre deflections and suspension motions become coupled (Koenen 1983; Sharp et al. 2004). Linearization for small perturbations from cornering trim states allows modes to be calculated and analysed, but the mode shapes become complex. "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter introduces the main characteristics of motorcycle oscillatory modes and then discusses how their damping can be increased by employing steering compensation. Weave mode is a fishtailing-type motion involving yaw and roll of the motorcycle body and steering system oscillations. Wobble mode is a steering oscillation that is reminiscent of the supermarket cart front-wheel caster shimmy. The chapter describes a high-fidelity motorcycle model that is used to illustrate quantitatively the characteristics of the oscillatory modes and the influence of steering damping on machine stability. A mathematical model is used to analyse and illustrate the behaviour of motorcycles. This model takes into account the aerodynamic forces and moments, which are proportional to the square of the speed. The chapter explains a design methodology for steering compensation that improves modal damping. Finally, it provides an analysis of burst oscillations followed by a design of steering compensation to suppress these oscillations.
    Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles, Edited by Mara Tanelli, Matteo Corno, Sergio M. Savaresi, 01/2014: chapter Motorcycle Dynamic Modes and Passive Steering Compensation; Wiley.
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    • "He studied the motorcycle's stability and sensitivity to geometric and tire parameters. In the last years, more accurate nonlinear models were given in [17] [18]. "
    Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics; 11/2013
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