Article

Advances in the Modelling of Motorcycle Dynamics

Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus
Multibody System Dynamics (Impact Factor: 1.75). 09/2004; 12(3):251-283. DOI: 10.1023/B:MUBO.0000049195.60868.a2

ABSTRACT Starting from an existing advanced motorcycle dynamics model, which allows simulation of reasonably general motions and stability, modal and response computations for small perturbations from any trim condition, improvements are described. These concern (a) tyre/road contact geometry, (b) tyre shear force and moment descriptions, as functions of load, slip and camber, (c) tyre relaxation properties, (d) a new analytic treatment of the monoshock rear suspension mechanism with sample results, (e) parameter values describing a contemporary high performance machine and rider, (f) steady-state equilibrium and power checking and (g) steering control. In particular, the Magic Formula motorcycle tyre model is utilised and complete sets of parameter values for contemporary tyres are derived by identification methods. The new model is used for steady turning, stability, design parameter sensitivity and response to road forcing calculations. The results show the predictions of the model to be in general agreement with observations of motorcycle behaviour from the field and they suggest that frame flexibility remains an important design and analysis area, despite improvements in frame designs over recent years. Motorcycle rider parameters have significant influences on the behaviour, with results consistent with a commonly held view, that lightweight riders are more likely to suffer oscillation problems than heavyweight ones.

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Available from: Simos Evangelou, Aug 12, 2015
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    • "While a car vehicle remains stable, the stabilization of two-wheeled vehicles is required and a rider model must be included. The literature of two-wheeled vehicle stabilization is recent [19] [18] [20]. Generally, a two-layer controller is adopted to track the reference road trajectory and an inner controller stabilizes the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a motorcycle direct dynamic formulation by the Jourdain's principle approach. This vehicle is considered as an assembly of six rigid bodies and the resulting equation of motion allows to simulate 11 degrees of freedom. The vehicle geometry is described and a step-by-step procedure is introduced to evaluate the kinematics and the generalised efforts of the considered vehicle. In addition, to simulate the equation of motion, a Lyapunov-based stabilisation is developed to assess the vehicle behaviour in response to a propulsion/braking torque applied on the vehicle's wheels and a rider torque exerted on the motorcycle's handlebar. Simulation results reveal some dynamic features such as load transfer and counter-steering phenomena.
    Vehicle System Dynamics 05/2013; 51(5). DOI:10.1080/00423114.2012.762536 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    • "He studied the motorcycle's stability and sensitivity to geometric and tire parameters. In the last years, more accurate nonlinear models were given in [17] [18]. "
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    • "According to the assumed number of rigid bodies, a number of corresponding degrees of freedom which characterizes the system motion is considered. Then, motorcycle's motion can be characterized by two main modes: in-plane mode representing movements in its plane of symmetry (longitudinal and pitch displacements) and the out-of-plane mode represented by the lateral dynamics when cornering [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is the reconstruc-tion of lateral dynamics and both roll angle and steering torque of single track vehicles (motorcycle, scooter, etc.). For that purpose, the well-known motorcycle model developed by Sharp in 1971 is used. This model characterizes the lateral dynamics of a motorcycle [16]. The roll angle is not observable in the obtained structure, for overcoming this problem, the model is transformed in order to take into account the roll angle as an unknown input as well as the steering torque. A Proportional two integrals (P2I) observer is then proposed for estimating simultaneously all the variable states, the lateral forces and both roll angle and steering torque. This study is a part of the ongoing work of the research team on the design of preventive safety systems for motorcycles users. Simulation results and discussions are given in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer.
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