Helping Young Children to Delay Gratification

Early Childhood Education Journal 06/2008; 35(6):557-564. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-008-0240-9

ABSTRACT The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught
as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age=6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; a, labeling: received
the treatment of being labeled as “patient” kids; b, story-telling: were read a story about the patient antagonist rewarded
double gifts, while the impulsive character got only one same reward; c, control: received no treatment. Under the DG task
of Ball-Moving Activity, the ANOVA results showed the children in labeling group delayed longer (M=13.23m) than the control
one (M=11.25m), showed marginal significant difference at p=.06, medium effect size magnitude at η2=.06. No significant mean differences were found between the story-telling (M=12.68m) and the control group, though the
story-telling group delayed more than 1min longer than their counterparts. Sex differences on the task are also discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Children’s ability to delay gratification is correlated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood, showing the potential impact of helping young children increase their competence in this area. This study investigated the influence of symbolic models on 3-year-old children’s self-control. Eighty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three modelling conditions: personal story-telling, impersonal story-telling, and control. Children were tested on the delay-of-gratification maintenance paradigm both before and after being exposed to a symbolic model or control condition. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two story-telling groups and the control group, indicating that the symbolic models did not influence children’s ability to delay gratification. A serendipitous finding showed a positive relationship between children’s ability to wait and their production and accurate use of temporal terms, which was more pronounced in girls than boys. This finding may be an indication that a higher temporal vocabulary is linked to a continuous representation of the self in time, facilitating children’s representation of the future-self receiving a larger reward than what the present-self could receive.
    01/2015; DOI:10.7717/peerj.774
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    ABSTRACT: O presente artigo tem como principal objectivo contribuir para o processo de valida- ção de uma adaptação para a língua portuguesa do “Questionário de Competência Interpessoal” (QCI; Buhrmester, Furman, Wittenberg e Reis, 1988). A amostra consistiu em 322 adolescentes e jovens adultos, com idades entre os 16 e os 25 anos de idade (M = 18.0, DP = .48). Foram levadas a cabo análises factoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias, bem como análises diferenciais em função do sexo e da idade. As análises exploratórias e confirmató- rias evidenciaram uma estrutura limpa, com as cinco dimensões originais do instrumento e índices adequados de ajustamento. A consistência interna das dimensões revelou valores satisfatórios e as correlações entre factores mostraram-se em conformidade com o enquadramento teórico. O instrumento mostrou-se igualmente sensível na identificação de diferenças em função do sexo e da idade. São discutidas as implicações e limitações deste estudo para futuras investigações.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of academic self-concept (internal factor) and maternal parenting behaviors (external factor) on academic delay of gratification (ADOG). Additionally, models predicting ADOG were compared between Korean and Malaysian children. The participants of this study were 100 Korean third graders and their mothers, and 100 Malaysian third graders and their mothers. The children completed the modified versions of the Academic Delay of Gratification Scale for Children, and Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire. The mothers completed the Parenting Attitude Test. Pearson's correlation tests, independent t-tests, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that Korean children reported higher ADOG and academic self-concept scores than that of Malaysian children. Moreover, academic self-concept was found to have a significant positive effect on ADOG among both Korean and Malaysian children. There was no significant gender difference in ADOG for both Korean and Malaysian children. However, the effects of maternal parenting behaviors on ADOG were only detected among the Malaysian children, particularly on Achievement Press. That is, only for the Malaysian children, maternal pressure about academic achievement was found to have a significant positive effect on ADOG. In conclusion, only academic self-concept was found to be a significant predictor explaining the variance in ADOG among Korean children. On the other hand, academic self-concept and maternal parenting behaviors were shown as significant predictors explaining the variance in ADOG among Malaysian children.
    12/2012; 13(2). DOI:10.6115/ijhe.2012.13.2.1