Fulminant autoimmune hepatitis in a girl with 22q13 deletion syndrome: a previously unreported association

European Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.98). 01/2009; 168(2):225-227. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-008-0732-z

ABSTRACT We report a 7-year-old girl with 22q13 deletion syndrome, 46,XX,Ish del(22)(q13.3)(ARSA-; D22S1726), who developed a fulminant
autoimmune hepatitis requiring orthotopic liver transplantation. Recently, it has been suggested that the Shank3 gene product,
whose deficiency is responsible for the features observed in this syndrome, could play a role in immunological response. Despite
an increased incidence of respiratory infections, autoimmune diseases have thus far not been reported in patients with this
syndrome. This is the first case of fulminant autoimmune hepatitis associated with the 22q13 deletion syndrome. The possible
relationships between immune system dysfunctions peculiar of this syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by a T-cell rich infiltrate associated with lobular and interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinemia and production of autoantibodies. Genetic risk is linked to the HLA particularly DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401 alleles in North American and European Caucasian populations. It has recently been suggested that functional deficiencies in CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells contribute to the breakdown of immune tolerance that results in AIH. Most patients respond to immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and can be maintained in remission by low-dose corticosteroid treatment and/or azathioprine. For those who progress to end-stage disease liver transplantation is an effective treatment although it is associated with recurrence. In the future it is likely that biological therapies will allow more targeted therapy designed to switch the balance to immune regulation and thereby restore immune homeostasis. Although treatment for many cases is relatively straightforward and successful problems are encountered in those who fail to respond to standard treatment, are unable to tolerate it or relapse. In such cases alternative therapies should be considered. In addition treatment is complicated in some patients by comorbidity and special care is required during and after pregnancy. We will discuss the current and future therapeutic options for patients with difficult to treat AIH.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical gene in the neurological and behavioral aspects of this syndrome. The phenotype of SHANK3 deficiency has been described primarily from case studies, with limited evaluation of behavioral and cognitive deficits. The present study used a prospective design and inter-disciplinary clinical evaluations to assess patients with SHANK3 deficiency, with the goal to provide a comprehensive picture of the medical and behavioral profile of the syndrome. METHODS: A serially ascertained sample of patients with SHANK3 deficiency (n = 32) was evaluated by a team of child psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical geneticists, molecular geneticists and psychologists. Patients were evaluated for autism spectrum disorder using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-G. RESULTS: Thirty participants with 22q13.3 deletions ranging in size from 101 kb to 8.45 Mb and two participants with de novo SHANK3 mutations were included. The sample was characterized by high rates of autism spectrum disorder: 27 (84%) met criteria for autism spectrum disorder and 24 (75%) for autistic disorder. Most patients (77%) exhibited severe to profound intellectual disability and only five (19%) used some words spontaneously to communicate. Dysmorphic features, hypotonia, gait disturbance, recurring upper respiratory tract infections, gastroesophageal reflux and seizures were also common. Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations indicated that larger deletions were associated with increased levels of dysmorphic features, medical comorbidities and social communication impairments related to autism. Analyses of individuals with small deletions or point mutations identified features related to SHANK3 haploinsufficiency, including ASD, seizures and abnormal EEG, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, abnormal brain MRI, gastroesophageal reflux, and certain dysmorphic features. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports findings from previous research on the severity of intellectual, motor, and speech impairments seen in SHANK3 deficiency, and highlights the predominance of autism spectrum disorder in the syndrome. Limitations of existing evaluation tools are discussed, along with the need for natural history studies to inform clinical monitoring and treatment development in SHANK3 deficiency.
    Molecular Autism 06/2013; 4(1):18. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also known as the 22q13 deletion syndrome, is a chromosomal microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, normal growth, profound developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. Almost all of the 22q13 deletions published so far have been described as terminal. It is believed that the SHANK3 gene is the major candidate gene for the neurologic features of the syndrome. Here we describe a patient with a 0.72-Mb interstitial 22q13.2 deletion, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, epilepsy, mild dysmorphic features, and no deletion in the SHANK3 gene. The patient also has urticarial rash and an elevated level of immunoglobulin E, the latter has previously been described only once in a patient with monosomy 22q13.2-qter and SHANK3 gene deletion. To our knowledge, this is one of the smallest interstitial deletion in this region which has been published up to now. Although the patient has the classic phenotype of the 22q13 terminal deletion syndrome, the etiology for the neurologic and immunological features must be due to genes located more proximal to SHANK3 and this is also supported by other previously published cases of interstitial 22q13.2 deletions. The deleted area in our patient is gene-rich (26 genes), containing several known genes with different functions. Two of them-NFAM1 and TNFRSF13C are involved in immune system functioning. We suggest the haploinsufficiency of these genes might be related to hyper IgE syndrome in our patient. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor