A cognitive investigation of schizophrenic delusions.
ABSTRACT Delusions have traditionally been regarded as unmodifiable false beliefs. Both Freud (1911) and Jaspers (1968) argue that there is a unidirectional relationship between a delusional belief and consensually validatable realtiy: the delusion structures reality in accordance with the delusion's demand. In contrast, we postulate that there is a bidirectional interaction between the delusion and external events. We believe that external events might modify the rigid belief when there is a dramatic incongruity between specific beliefs and selected events. The following investigation was motivated by a desire to understand more clearly how some overtly delusional patients come to lose their delusions during the course of treatment for schizophrenia. Do delusions simply melt away under the influence of major tranquilizers, or does the delusional patient play some active part in assessing the validity of this belief?
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ABSTRACT: Literature review suggests that adherence to immunosuppressive drugs may be lower in recipients of living than of deceased donor kidney grafts, possibly because of profile differences.International journal of organ transplantation medicine. 01/2014; 5(1):7-14.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Paranoia is a disruptive belief that can vary across a continuum, ranging from persecutory delusions presented in clinical settings to paranoid cognitions that are highly prevalent in the general population. The literature suggests that paranoid thoughts derive from the activation of a paranoid schema or information processing biases that can be sensitive to socially ambiguous stimuli and influence the processing of threatening situations. Method: Four groups (Schizophrenic participants in active psychotic phases, n=6; stable participants in remission, n=30; participants' relatives, n=32; and healthy controls, n=64) were assessed with self-report questionnaires to determine how the reactions to paranoia of clinical patients differ from healthy individuals. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions of their reactions to these paranoid thoughts were examined. Results: Paranoid individuals were present in all groups. Most participants referred the rejection by others as an important trigger of paranoid ideations, while active psychotic were unable to identify triggering situations to their thoughts and reactions. This may be determinant to the different reactions and the different degree of invalidation caused by paranoid thoughts observed across groups. Conclusion: Clinical and non-clinical expressions of paranoid ideations differ in terms of their cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. It is suggested that, in socially ambiguous situations, paranoid participants (presenting lower thresholds of paranoid schema activation) lose the opportunity to disconfirm their paranoid beliefs by resourcing to more maladaptive coping strategies. Consequently, by dwelling on these thoughts, the amount of time spent thinking about their condition and the disability related to the disease increases.Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses 06/2014;
- Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. 03/2007; 36(1):98-110.