The Structure of Self-Consciousness in Children and Young Adolescents and Relations to Social Anxiety

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.55). 12/2008; 30(4):261-271. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-008-9079-z


Decades of research have examined the structure of self-consciousness in adults and its relationship to social anxiety. This
study examined the structure of self-consciousness via the Self-Consciousness Scales (Fenigstein et al., J. Consult. Clin.
Psychol. 43:522–527, 1975) in a school sample of 175 children and young adolescents (92 girls; mean age = 11.5). Confirmatory
factor analysis best supported a five-factor solution (Internal State Awareness, Self-Reflectiveness, Appearance Consciousness,
Style Consciousness and Social Anxiety). Although some factor based subscales evidenced low internal consistencies, convergent
and discriminant correlations with self-report measures of social phobia, negative affect, and positive affect as well as
parent-report measures of internalizing and externalizing problems provided additional support for the five-factor model.
Future studies should further examine the multidimensional nature as well as the developmental course of self-consciousness
and its relation to social anxiety longitudinally.

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Available from: Charmaine K. Higa-McMillan, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "For instance, trait depression could be hypothesized to be higher in the major depressive disorder (MDD) sample than in all of the anxiety disorders. Further, trait self-consciousness would be hypothesized to be higher in social phobia (Makris and Heimberg, 1995; Barlow et al., 1996; Bienvenu et al., 2004; George and Stopa, 2008; Higa et al., 2008) than other mood and anxiety disorders. With respect to Extraversion , which includes facets pertaining to warmth, gregariousness , assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking and positive emotions, while likely not differing between mood and anxiety disorders at the domain level, the facet of positive emotions would be expected to be uniquely low in both MDD and social phobia. "
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