Hemoglobin concentrations of Chironomus cf.plumosus larvae were measured in two different habitats of the same pond. Larger larvae have higher hemoglobin concentrations than small larvae. There is strong indication that the animals of poorly oxygenated deep water, have higher hemoglobin concentrations than the animals from the well-oxygenated littoral zone.
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"There are various likely explanations for the peculiar variance of stoichiometric ratios among the studied profundal chironomid taxa. The chironomid taxa inhabiting eutrophic sites, C. plumosus in particular, are adapted to oxygen-poor conditions partly due to high haemoglobin concentration (Weber, 1980; Int Panis et al., 1995), whereas the taxa generally considered intolerant to anoxia (Orthocladiinae) are largely lacking haemoglobin (Cranston, 1988). Varying concentrations of nitrogen-rich haemoglobin protein might thus result in the correlations between trophic preference of chironomid taxa and both N content and C:N ratio, but not with P. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We quantified the role of a main food resource, sedimenting organic matter (SOM), relative to oxygen (DO) and temperature (TEMP) in structuring profundal macroinvertebrate assemblages in boreal lakes. SOM from 26 basins of 11 Finnish lakes was analysed for quantity (sedimentation rates), quality (C:N:P stoichiometry) and origin (carbon stable isotopes, δ13C). Hypolimnetic oxygen and temperature were measured from each site during summer stratification. Partial canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and partial regression analyses were used to quantify contributions of SOM, DO and TEMP to community composition and three macroinvertebrate metrics. The results suggested a major contribution of SOM in regulating the community composition and total biomass. Oxygen best explained the Shannon diversity, whereas TEMP had largest contribution to the variation of Benthic Quality Index. Community composition was most strongly related to δ13C of SOM. Based on additional δ13C and stoichiometric analyses of chironomid taxa, marked differences were apparent in their utilization of SOM and body stoichiometry; taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions exhibited higher C:N ratios and lower C:P and N:P ratios compared to the species typical of eutrophic lakes. The results highlight the role of SOM in regulating benthic communities and the distributions of individual species, particularly in oligotrophic systems.
"This method was found to be reproducible and accurate . Lyophilization (freeze-drying) of the larvae prior to the analysis is not necessary and may produce anomalous results (Int Panis et al., 1994b) . All hemoglobin determinations were, therefore, carried out on individual defrosted specimens with a wet weight of more than 2 mg except for Ablabesmyia for which a pooled sample of 10 individuals was used . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animals that dwell at different depths in the sediment, are adapted to different respiratory environments. It is possible that animals that occur deep in the sediment have a higher hemoglobin concentration than surface-dwelling animals. To test this hypothesis, hemoglobin concentrations and weights of eight chironomid species that dwell in the littoral zone were measured. High hemoglobin concentration and weight both seemed to contribute to an ability to cope with low oxygen concentrations, and determined the vertical distribution of chironomids in the sediment. A multiple regression equation, including these factors, was derived. It may be used to predict the median depth of occurrence for species that were not included in this study. High sensitivity of small animals to oxygen stress is discussed from a theoretical point of view.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Density and biomass of fishes, from shallow rocky and soft bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast, showed large seasonal variation with low values in winter and spring and with peaks in June. Season was also the most important factor determining the fish assemblage structure. Within season, however, there was a clear separation in assemblage structure between rocky-and soft-bottom habitats. There were significantly higher total fish abundances and biomasses during night compared with day catches. On soft bottoms density and biomass of fishes decreased with increasing depth, but no such pattern was seen in rocky habitats indicating that the distribution of fishes was related to vegetation cover. Altogether, 53 fish species were recorded of which 30 were common to both habitats. Species richness was similar on rocky and soft bottoms. Of the 10 most abundant species found in rocky habitats four belonged to the Labridae and three to the Gadidae. The fish assemblage on soft bottoms were of a more mixed nature with representatives among the 10 dominants from six families (Clupeidae, Cottidae, Gadidae, Gobiidae, Labridae and Pleuronectidae). When ranking the 10 dominant fish species on rocky bottoms according to biomass c. 50% of the mass was Labridae, 19% Gadidae and 13% Cottidae. In soft bottom habitats, fish biomass was mainly distributed between six families. Pleuronectidae and Gadidae were dominant and each made up 25% of the biomass, whereas Labridae only contributed 4% of the fish mass. It is concluded that the fish assemblage in rocky habitats is dominated by permanent non-commercial species (63% of biomass), whereas soft bottoms mainly function as nurseries for juvenile fishes and as feeding grounds for seasonal migrants of commercial species (80% of biomass).
Journal of Fish Biology 04/2002; 61(sA):148 - 166. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2002.tb01768.x · 1.66 Impact Factor