Differences in Arterial Compliance Among Normotensive Adolescent Groups: Collins Arterial Compliance in Adolescents
ABSTRACT Decreased arterial compliance is an important predictor of cardiovascular risk. Pulse wave velocity correlates well with arterial
compliance. Gender and ethnic differences in adult populations have been described. However, few data are available evaluating
arterial compliance in adolescent subjects. Using a simple noninvasive oscillometric technique, brachial–ankle pulse wave
velocity (baPWV) was measured as an index of arterial stiffness. Measurements were performed on a cross-sectional (65% African
American, 52% female) sample of 205 normotensive (blood pressure <95% for gender, height, and age) adolescents with a mean
age of 15.9 years (range, 12–21 years). The 205 adolescent subjects include 106 females and 99 males. In these adolescents,
the mean baPWV was higher for males (1,096cm/s) than for females (1,039cm/s; p < 0.0024; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2051–0.9349), and for African Americans (1,080cm/s) than for whites (1,040cm/s;
p<0.0438; 95% CI, 0.0112–0.7888). Multiple regression analyses found a three-way interaction among gender, ethnicity, and
age. The effect of age on baPWV was greater among African Americans (slope=18.1cm/s/year) and males (slope=21.6) than
among whites (slope=11.0) and females (slope=11.3), although these differences did not reach statistical significance.
Differences in arterial compliance are already present and detectable in normotensive adolescent subjects. Decreased arterial
compliance among adolescent groups correlates with the known adult risk for cardiovascular events among the same ethnic and
Article: Sex differences in vascular compliance in normal-weight but not obese boys and girls: the effect of body composition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. To determine the effect of sex and obesity on vascular function in children and explore potential mechanisms that account for differences in vascular function. Methods. Participants were 61 (30 boys) normal-weight (BMI 25-75% ile for age and sex) and 62 (30 boys) obese (BMI ≥ 95% ile) children of ages 8-18 years. Measurements of large and small artery elastic index (LAEI and SAEI, resp.) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) were obtained at rest, along with anthropometric and biochemical information. Results. In normal-weight children, LAEI was 16% higher in males than females (P = 0.04) with a similar trend for SAEI (13% higher in males, P = 0.067). In obese children, no sex-related differences in vascular measures were observed. In multivariable models, sex differences in arterial compliance were explained by higher lean mass in normal-weight boys. Fat mass predicted LAEI and SAEI in both normal-weight and obese females, but fat mass predicted arterial compliance in boys when fat mass exceeded 24 kg (37% of the sample). Conclusions. Normal-weight males have higher arterial compliance than normal-weight females due to increased lean mass, but sex-related differences were not observed among obese children due to a lack of sex-related differences in lean or fat mass.International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2012; 2012:607895.