Trace elements in Nigerian oil sands and extracted bitumens
ABSTRACT The Nigerian oil sands are very extensive with an estimated in place reserves of bitumen/heavy oil of over 30 billion barrels. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to determine the trace and minor elements in the raw oil sands and bitumens. About 43 trace elements in the raw oil sands and 30 in bitumen extracts were determined. The results are compared with values of Canadian bitumens and some Nigerian conventional light crude oils. In general, the Nigerian bitumens has higher hydrocarbon concentration than the Athabasca bitumen but slightly lower than in the Nigerian crude oils. The sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents of the Nigerian bitumens and crude oils are appreciably lower than those of Athabasca bitumen, thus indicating that the extraction and refining of Nigerian tar sand oil would pose less technological and environmental problems than the Athabasca syncrude.
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ABSTRACT: Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Ge(Li) spectrometry have been used to determine Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Eu, Au, Hg, and U in crude petroleum. The technique involves no chemical separations and no pre-concentration of the samples by ashing is necessary, thus avoiding contamination or loss of volatile elements. The estimated detection limits in ppb for the elements are Sc (0.1), Cr (0.16), Fe (400.0), Co (0.6), Ni (1.1), Zn (200.0), As (6.0), Se (23.0), Sb (1.0), Eu (0.58), Au (0.11), Hg (4.3), U (1.5). Precision values ranged from 0.1% to 15% (relative standard deviation). Interferences in the Co and Fe determinations due to fast neutron reactions (n, p) and (n, α) on Ni isotopes are small and are easily corrected. Losses of As, Se, and Hg due to escape of volatile gases during irradiation are negligibleJournal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 11/1970; 6(2):413-422. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive tar sands with reserves of about 41 billion barrels of oil are known to occur in Cretaceous terrigenous sediments in Ondo and Ogun States of Nigeria. The hydrocarbon occurs in two predominantly sandy zones separated by an 8 m thick oil shale. The lower (Horizon Y) is mostly quartz sand, 3–26 m thick. It shows an upward fining of grains and increased consolidation updip. The upper Horizon X is 10–22 m of sandstone with interbedded shales and siltstones. The sands are loosely consolidated. Cementing material is lacking, the grains being held together largely by the tarry oil. Porosity is about 30% and mean oil saturation in both zones is 12%.The recorded clay content (2–7%) is considerably lower than the average for Athabasca, Canada (10–25%) and may enhance the settling properties of the tailing ponds. The sands are water-wet, fine- to medium-grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and positively skewed to near symmetrical. The Nigerian tar sands compare closely with the Athabasca sands in all the above textural parameters. They would thus be expected to show identical response to mining processing, except for the influence of higher ground-water table and the high humidity and ambient temperatures in Nigeria.Sedimentary Geology 01/1985; · 1.80 Impact Factor
- Geotechnical investigations of the Ondo State bituminous sands..