The role of common urinary constituents in the precipitation of ammonium acid urate
Royal Perth Hospital and the University of Western Australia, Perth, AustraliaClinica Chimica Acta (Impact Factor: 2.82). 01/1980; 99(3):221-7. DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(79)90265-1
A high proportion of the inhibitory activity shown by urine toward precipitation of ammonium acid urate is ultrafilterable and most of this can be accounted for by the common, low molecular weight components of urine. The individual inhibitory effects of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, citric acid, hippuric acid, creatinine and urea upon the precipitation of ammonium acid urate have been quantified in an aqueous test system.
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ABSTRACT: Of 205 consecutively analysed urinary stones, two-thirds were from men, which reflected the male: female ratio of urolithiasis cases at this hospital in the period of the study. Phosphate was found in 69.9% of the stones from male patients and in 94.2% of those from female patients. The phosphate in the urinary stones consisted of hydroxylapatite, carboxylapatite and/or MgHN4PO4. CaHPO4 could be demonstrated in only six of the 205 stones. Oxalate was present in 59.6 and 39.1% of the stones from males and females, respectively. Calcium phosphates from saturated solutions precipitated mainly as hydroxylapatite at pH levels above 5.47. Only below this level did CaHPO4 become visible in infrared spectrophotometry analysis. The solubility of calcium phosphates greatly increased with lowering of the pH. Increasing the ionic activity of the saturated solution with sodium chloride increased the solubility of calcium phosphates only to a limited extent.Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 02/1981; 15(3):263-7. DOI:10.3109/00365598109179614 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary bladder stones are described as occurring in aboriginal children from native reserves. Here breast feeding is supplemented early in life with white flour and little else. A comparison is made between this diet and that of children in endemic bladder stone regions, and reasons are advanced for the formation of these stones, with biochemical evidence to support the thesis that ammonium acid urate precipitation is the initiating factor.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 07/1981; 51(3):292-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1445-2197.1981.tb05960.x
Article: Endemic bladder stone in Nepal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bladder stones account for a large proportion of surgical admissions in many developing countries. We report in detail the clinical features and risk factors of one such case, a 5 year old Nepali boy, and propose the theory that a low calcium intake, by causing hypocalciuria, predisposes to bladder stone formation.Archives of Disease in Childhood 01/1989; 63(12):1503-5. DOI:10.1136/adc.63.12.1503 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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