A comparison of the costs and effects of liver transplantation for acute and for chronic liver failure
Little is known about costs and cost-effectiveness of liver transplantation (LTx) for acute liver failure compared to costs
and cost-effectiveness of LTx for chronic liver failure. In this study, costs of acute and of chronic LTx patients were determined
in a retrospective study. Files of 100 consecutive patients who underwent LTx in 1993–1997 were studied. Costs up to 1 year
after LTx were Euro 107,675 (chronic liver failure) and Euro 90,792 (acute liver failure). The difference was mainly caused
by higher hospitalisation costs and higher personnel costs for chronic liver failure. Medication costs for acute liver failure
were higher, due to a high administration rate of expensive anti-HBs immunoglobulin therapy in patients with viral hepatitis
B. LTx for chronic liver failure is more costly and seems to be more cost-effective than LTx for acute liver failure, since
1-year survival is higher in patients who underwent transplantation for chronic liver failure.
Available from: Einar Amlie
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ABSTRACT: The financing of health care services in Norway has been changed from a system of global budgeting to a system partly based on Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG). The government has decided to derive a part of the hospital revenue from DRG-based, per-patient financing. The aim of this study is to determine whether the present remuneration system covers the actual hospital expenses of liver transplant patients, and whether the present method of calculating DRG-costs is adequate for our institution. Our group developed a prospective method of determining the actual cost per patient. We closely observed and collected the data of eight liver transplant patients during their hospital stay. We divided each of the patients' resource requirements into four categories; heavy intensive care, light intensive care, intermediate care, and ordinary care. In addition, we recorded the number of staff involved, the duration of surgery, the major procedures, and the medical- and material costs. The actual cost of each patient was calculated, based on these data. The actual cost was compared with the corresponding hospital remuneration for each patient. Median cost for liver transplantation was NOK 536.785 (range: NOK 295.113-NOK 844.345) (1$=7,5 NOK), while the corresponding hospital refund was NOK 457.785 (range: NOK 436.465-NOK 483.040). The difference is not statistically significant ( P=0.2). The average 100% DRG-based cost of a liver transplantation was NOK 730.321, which is significantly higher than the actual cost ( P=0.02). The hospital's reimbursement for liver transplantation did not differ significantly from the actual registered cost. The computed cost was significantly lower than the DRG-based cost.
Transplant International 11/2002; 15(9-10):439-45. DOI:10.1007/s00147-002-0430-0 · 2.60 Impact Factor
Available from: Arturo Pereira
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ABSTRACT: Residual risk of posttransfusion hepatitis B (PT-HB) may be reduced through implementation of HBV NAT or the new, enhanced-sensitivity HBsAg assays in routine donor testing. However, there are some doubts about the cost-effectiveness of these new safety measures, because hepatitis B acquired in adulthood is not regarded as a severe disease in western countries.
A computer model was designed to estimate the health outcomes and associated costs of patients with PT-HB. Results from this model and estimations of the residual risk of HBV transmission, the risk reduction yielded by the new assays, and their cost were used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of including the new HBsAg assays or single-sample HBV NAT in the routine screening of blood donors.
The model predicts that 0.97 percent of patients with PT-HB die of liver disease (54% of them due to fulminant hepatitis). The mean loss of life expectancy was 0.178 years per patient, and the present value of the lifetime costs of treating PT-HB was 4160 euros per patient. Single-donor HBV NAT or the new HBsAg assays would increase the life expectancy of blood recipients by 16 (95% CI, 8-40) or 14 (95% CI, 7-28) years, respectively, per every 10 million donations tested. The projected cost per life-year gained was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.15-1.85) million euros for the enhanced-sensitivity HBsAg assays and 5.8 (95% CI, 1.9-13.1) million euros for single-donation HBV NAT, both compared with current HBsAg assays. If single-donation HBV NAT is compared with the new HBsAg assays, its cost- effectiveness ratio increases to 53 (95% CI, 16-127) million euros.
PT-HB has few health or economic repercussions. Single-donation HBV NAT would provide a small health benefit at a very high cost. Instead, in some circumstances, the cost-effectiveness of enhanced-sensitivity HBsAg assays would be within acceptable ranges for new public health interventions.
Transfusion 03/2003; 43(2):192-201. DOI:10.1046/j.1537-2995.2003.00280.x · 3.23 Impact Factor
Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
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ABSTRACT: Organ transplantations are among the most expensive surgical treatments performed today, but estimates of the costs of organ transplantations vary widely between settings. The aim of this study is to estimate the costs of renal, liver and heart transplantation in a university hospital, adopting a similar costing methodology for all the three kinds of transplantation. Resource use data were collected from 803 patients transplanted between January 1995 and August 2001. Data about the time physicians and other hospital employees spent per transplantation were based on interviews. All costs from pretransplantation screening up to 3 years post-transplantation were taken into account and divided into costs of patient care and programme-related costs. Mean cost of renal transplantation varied from 70,723 Euros for cadaveric donor transplantations to 76,577 Euros for living donor transplantations. Mean costs of liver transplantation were 141,510 Euros and the mean costs of heart transplantation were 17, 828 Euros. Direct costs of patient care contributed to 79%, 87% and 92% of the costs of renal, liver and heart transplantation respectively. Inpatient hospital days were the largest contributor to the costs of patient care. The mean number of inpatient hospital days from pretransplantation screening to 3 years post-transplantation varied from 46 days for renal transplantation from a living donor to 58 days for renal transplantation from cadaveric donors, 83 days for heart transplantation and 108 days for liver transplantation. In conclusion, costs of liver and heart transplantation were approximately 2.0 and 2.5 times higher than the cost of renal transplantation. Length of inpatient hospital stay for transplantation did not change substantially over time between 1995 and 2001.
Transplant International 05/2005; 18(4):437-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2004.00063.x · 2.60 Impact Factor
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