Production of an Emetic Toxin, Cereulide, Is Associated with a Specific Class of Bacillus cereus

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Current Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.42). 06/1996; 33(1):67-69. DOI: 10.1007/s002849900076


The emetic toxin (cereulide) of Bacillus cereus was quantified in several isolates of B. cereus and in various food sources. When the emetic toxin was produced, vomiting-type food poisoning was observed in humans. We
also found that the H-1 serovar phenotype was strongly associated with the production of cereulide and that none of the isolates
that hydrolyzed starch or expressed diarrheal enterotoxin activity produced cereulide.

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    • "xins , respectively . The cereulide production has been tested using the bio - assay , employing the known inhibitory effect of the toxin to the boar spermatozoa motility ( Andersson et al . , 1998 ) . Only strains that were found negative on HBL production and that gave negative starch hydro - lyses reaction were tested for cereulide production ( Agata et al . , 1996 ; Pirttijarvi et al . , 2000 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFED) potato puree was analysed for Bacillus cereus contamination along the production line and during the product shelf-life. Isolated B. cereus strains were tested for their psychrotrophic character and the ability to produce enterotoxins. Bacillus cereus contamination during four subsequent productions was in the range of 2.3–4.0 log cfu g)1 . Productions five and six were significantly less contaminated with B. cereus (£1 log cfu g)1). All B. cereus isolates from the first four productions were able to grow at 7 ° and 10 °C, whereas the majority of the isolates from productions five and six did not. No B. cereus isolates grew at 4 °C. randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting showed that the most of B. cereus contamination originated from one source. In total, 30.4% of isolates expressed enterotoxic character. The present study points out the necessity to prevent an 'in house' colonisation and contamination during food processing in order to accomplish the safety of REPFED throughout the shelf-life. It also indicates the most critical steps in the production line of ready-to-eat potato puree and impact of failures regarding the food safety. The data provided can be used for risk assessment studies regarding B. cereus in REPFED.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 10/2006; 41(8). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01129.x · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "substrate for toxin production under optimal conditions (Agata et al., 1996; Agata, Ohta, & Yokoyama, 2002; Finlay, Logan, & Sutherland, 2000). Milk and milk ingredients have been implicated in some of the food poisoning episodes mentioned above. "
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    ABSTRACT: A collection of 5668 Bacillus cereus isolates, resulting from investigations on sources of contamination to milk in 10 different dairies and 10 farms, was screened for the presence of emetic toxin producing strains, based on phenotypic traits, a specific RAPD-PCR pattern, a sperm motility inhibition test, and was confirmed chemically. No emetic strains (<0.2%) were found in milk at a farm during the grazing period and none was found in environmental samples. Emetic strains were generally rare in milk (<1.0–3.8%) during the stall period but extensive clonal development occurred on one farm in cubicles with deep sawdust bedding. Among 3401 isolates obtained from samples taken along the dairy processing line and in monthly samplings of silo tanks, only 0.05% were emetic toxin producers. However, evidence for an emetic house flora was found in one silo tank. It may be important for the dairy industry to increase surveillance for emetic strains in milk powder and to further optimize the cleaning routines of silos.
    International Dairy Journal 07/2006; 16(7-16):740-749. DOI:10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.07.002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    • "The emetic syndrome is induced by a cyclic peptide that is released into foods, especially rice, during growth of appropriate strains of the bacterium and causes vomiting some 2 to 6 h after ingestion [10] [11] [12]. The diarrhoeal form of the disease is caused by the secretion of enterotoxins by B. cereus cells in the intestine following consumption of contaminated foods [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy-four strains of Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis representing 24 serovars were examined for the presence of three enterotoxin genes/operons; the non-haemolytic enterotoxin Nhe, the haemolytic enterotoxin hbl and the Bacillus cereus toxin bceT using polymerase chain reaction. The nheBC genes were found in all strains examined, the hblCD genes in 65 of the 74 strains and bceT in 63 strains. There was little consistency of the distribution of enterotoxin loci among strains of the same serovar in serovars that were well represented in our collection. Culture supernatants from all but one strain inhibited protein synthesis in Vero cells, generally with a toxicity equivalent to that seen in strains of B. cereus isolated from incidents of food poisoning. Microbiological Societies.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2000; 190(1):151-5. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1097(00)00317-7 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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