Heavy Metal Levels in Marine Sediments of Singapore
ABSTRACT Marine environmental levels of the metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were measured from sediments collected around 20 coastal locations around Singapore, over a 2-year period. Sediment-size analysis was conducted on sediment samples, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used in the analyses of sediment heavy metal concentrations. The levels of heavy metals in marine sediment was largely dependant on sediment particle size, as illustrated by the correlation of sediment size with Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) configurations of sediment metal concentrations. In addition, the proximity to shipping activity, and the release of anti-fouling paint from boats also influence heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments of Singapore.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Beverly P.L. Goh, Jun 28, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The pollution of aquifer sediments by heavy metals has assumed serious concern due to their toxicity and accumulative behavior. Changes in environmental conditions can strongly influence the behavior of both essential and toxic elements by altering the forms in which they occur and therefore quantification of the different forms of metal is more meaningful than total metal concentrations. In this study, fractionation of metal ions in aquifer sediments of Semria Ojhapatti area, Bhojpur district, Bihar has been studied to determine the ecotoxic potential of metal ions. The investigations suggest that iron, copper, and arsenic have a tendency to remain associated in the following order residual > reducible > acid-soluble > oxidizable; manganese and zinc have tendency to be associated as residual > acid-soluble > reducible > oxidizable. The risk assessment code reveals that manganese and zinc occur in significant concentration in acid-soluble fraction and therefore comes under the high risk category and can easily enter the food chain. Most of the iron, copper, and arsenic occur as immobile fraction (i.e. residual) followed by its presence in reducible fraction and would pose threat to the water quality due to changing redox conditions. The metal enrichment factor in the study area shows moderate to significant metal enrichment in the aquifer sediments which may pose a real threat in near future. The geo-accumulation index of metals also shows that the metals lie in the range of strongly contaminated (for iron at shallow depths) to moderately contaminated to uncontaminated values.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 06/2011; 184(5):3027-42. DOI:10.1007/s10661-011-2168-6 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the water column (including the sea-surface microlayer, subsurface, mid-depth and bottom water) and sediments from Singapore's coastal environment. The concentration ranges for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the seawater dissolved phase (DP) were 0.34-2.04, 0.013-0.109, 0.07-0.35, 0.23-1.16, 0.28-0.78, 0.009-0.062 and 0.97-3.66 microg L(-1) respectively. The ranges for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 0.16-0.73, 6.72-53.93, 12.87-118.29, 4.34-60.71, 1.10-6.08 and 43.09-370.49 microg g(-1), respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments ranged between 0.054-0.217, 37.48-50.52, 6.30-21.01, 13.27-26.59, 24.14-37.28 and 48.20-62.36 microg g(-1) for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The lowest concentrations of metals in the DP and SPM were most frequently found in the subsurface water while the highest concentrations were mostly observed in the SML and bottom water. Overall, heavy metals in both the dissolved and particulate fractions have depth profiles that show a decreasing trend of concentrations from the subsurface to the bottom water, indicating that the prevalence of metals is linked to the marine biological cycle. In comparison to data from Greece, Malaysia and USA, the levels of metals in the DP are considered to be low in Singapore. Higher concentrations of particulate metals were reported for the Northern Adriatic Sea and the Rhine/Meuse estuary in the Netherlands compared to values reported in this study. The marine sediments in Singapore are not heavily contaminated when compared to metal levels in marine sediments from other countries such as Thailand, Japan, Korea, Spain and China.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 04/2008; 138(1-3):255-72. DOI:10.1007/s10661-007-9795-y · 1.68 Impact Factor
- Marine Pollution Bulletin 01/2006; 50(12):1732-8. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.09.008 · 2.79 Impact Factor