Heavy Metal Levels in Marine Sediments of Singapore

National University of Singapore
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.59). 01/1997; 44(1):67-80. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005763918958

ABSTRACT Marine environmental levels of the metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were measured from sediments collected around 20 coastal locations around Singapore, over a 2-year period. Sediment-size analysis was conducted on sediment samples, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used in the analyses of sediment heavy metal concentrations. The levels of heavy metals in marine sediment was largely dependant on sediment particle size, as illustrated by the correlation of sediment size with Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) configurations of sediment metal concentrations. In addition, the proximity to shipping activity, and the release of anti-fouling paint from boats also influence heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments of Singapore.

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    ABSTRACT: A 4-year annual sediment survey was conducted in an organically enriched tidal channel to compare the performance of univariate community descriptors, traditional multivariate techniques (TM) and artificial neural networks (AANs), in the assessment of infaunal responses to moderate levels of sediment metal contamination. Both TM approaches and the SOM ANN revealed spatiotemporal patterns of environmental and biological variables, suggesting a causal relationship between them and further highlighting subsets of taxa and sediment variables as potential main drivers of those patterns. Namely, high values of non-natural metals and organic content prompted high abundances of opportunists, while high values of natural metals yielded typical tolerant assemblages of organically enriched areas. The two approaches yielded identical final results but ANNs showed the following advantages over TM: ability to generalise results, powerful visualization tools and the ability to account simultaneously for sediment and faunal variables in the same analysis. Therefore, the SOM ANN, combined with the K-means clustering algorithm, is suggested as a promising tool for the assessment of the ecological quality of estuarine infaunal communities, although further work is needed to ensure the accuracy of the method.
    Science of The Total Environment 03/2013; 450-451C:289-300. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a polluted site at Kg. Pasir Puteh was assessed for heavy metal pollution by using transplanted caged mussel (Perna viridis) from a relatively clean population, Sg. Melayu; both are located in the Strait of Johore. For control purposes, the P. viridis from Kg. Pasir Puteh were also simultaneously transplanted in Sg. Melayu at the same time. It was found that Zn was the metal which got accumulated fastest in the transplanted mussel while Cd was the slowest. This study indicated that the byssus of Perna viridis was most effective for biomonitoring of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn, while the shell could be used for the biomonitoring of Cu, Ni and Pb and the total soft tissue for the biomonitoring of Ni since they were able to accumulate and eliminate the respective metals well. By using mussel as a biomonitor, the present study found that Kg. Pasir Puteh, which is located in the eastern part of the Strait of Johore, had significantly higher contamination and bioavailabilities of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. Therefore, the use of the transplanted caged mussels is very useful for heavy metal assessment purposes since it can increase the validity of data interpretation by minimizing ecological factors
    Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology. 01/2013; 21:75-96.
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    ABSTRACT: Export Date: 6 December 2012, Source: Scopus, Article in Press, doi: 10.1007/s12517-012-0756-6, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Aris, A.Z.; Environmental Forensics Research Centre, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, 43400, Selangor, Malaysia; email:
    Arabian Journal of Geosciences; 12/2012

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