Repeated applications of farmyard manure enhance resistance and resilience of soil biological functions against soil disinfection
ABSTRACT The effect of repeated application of farmyard manure (FYM) on resistance and resilience of some of soil biological functions
was compared between two soils [chemically fertilized soil (CF soil) and chemically and organically amended soil (CF+FYM-soil)].
The impact of chloropicrin and metam sodium disinfection on organic matter (glucose and chitin) decomposition activity and
number of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the soils was measured periodically from just after disinfection to evaluate stability
of soil biological functions to soil disinfection. Glucose and chitin decomposition activity and number of ammonia oxidizing
bacteria was suppressed by soil disinfection more seriously in the CF soil than in the CF+FYM soil. The decomposition rates
recovered in the disinfected CF+FYM soil 2 to 12weeks after disinfection, but not in the CF soil during 12weeks incubation.
These results demonstrated that soil resistance and resilience of the selected biological functions may be higher in the CF+
FYM soil than in the CF soil. The ratios of fungal and bacterial contribution to glucose decomposition activity were evaluated
by the substrate-induced respiration method. Chloropicrin and metam sodium disinfection decreased fungal contribution throughout
the incubation period (12weeks) in the CF soil. A similar tendency was observed in the CF+FYM soil, but the fungal contribution
tended to recover more rapidly in the CF+FYM soil than in the CF soil. Repeated applications of FYM may be an effective way
to enhance soil functional stability.
- SourceAvailable from: Stuart L Pimm01/1984; 307:321-326.
- Soil & Tillage Research - SOIL TILL RES. 01/1993; 27:1-8.
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ABSTRACT: Comparison of microbial properties were made between soils amended with chemical fertilizer (CF-soil) and with CF and farmyard manure (FYM: CF + FYM-soil) for more than 10 years in an attempt to elucidate microbiological characteristics of the soil with the repeated application of FYM. The numbers of total bacteria were not significantly different between the CF- and CF + FYM-soils, while those of culturable bacteria were two to six times higher in the CF + FYM-soil than in the CF-soil. Microbial community structure on a broad scale was estimated by molecular methods: %G + C profiles of soil community DNA and sequencing of 16S rDNA of clones. There was a shift in the %G + C profiles toward a greater proportion of higher %G + C classes in the CF + FYM-soil. 16S rDNA clone library was obtained from the community DNA of the two soils and phylogenetic analysis of 77 clones was made. While 16S rDNA clones in the CF-soil were dominated by alpha-, gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (36, 28 and 10%, respectively), those in the CF + FYM-soil by gamma- and alpha-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacterium (26, 21, 13 and 11%, respectively). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) showed a seasonal variation in the soil microbial community structure, but clearly differentiated the CF + FYM-soil from the CF-soil. These results suggested that different soil microbial community structure developed by the repeated application of FYM. Carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates showed that the CF + FYM-soil had a higher utilization ability of the substrates, especially l-proline and phenyl ethylamine, α-cyclodextrin, cellobiose and d-serine. Microbial community specific to soil amended with FYM is discussed in a combination with the results obtained by the different methods.Applied Soil Ecology. 01/2006;