Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: overview and perspectives
ABSTRACT Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. tropici, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation.
Article: [Functional analysis].Der Zahnarzt; Colloquium med. dent 07/1977; 21(6):251-9.
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ABSTRACT: Four compounds exuded from young roots of a black-seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv PI165426CS) induce transcription of nod genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. The three most active nod gene inducers were identified by spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet/visible absorbance, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry) as being eriodictyol (5,7,3',4' -tetrahydroxyflavanone), naringenin (5,7,4' -trihydroxyflavanone), and a 7-O-glycoside of genistein (5,7,4' -trihydroxyisoflavone). Comparisons with authentic standards verified the chemical structures of the aglycones and their capacity to induce beta-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum strains containing nodA-lacZ or nodC-lacZ fusions controlled by R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli nodD genes. Roots of 9-day-old seedlings released 42, 281, and 337 nanomoles per plant per day of genistein, eriodictyol, and naringenin, respectively. Genistein and naringenin induced higher maximum beta-galactosidase activities and required lower concentrations for half-maximum induction than eriodictyol. Comparing the nod gene-inducing activity of seed rinses with root exudate from PI165426CS bean showed that root flavonoids were released at about 6% the rate of those from seeds on a molar basis, but on average the individual compounds from roots were approximately three times more active than nod gene inducers from seeds.Plant physiology 11/1991; 97(2):759-64. · 6.56 Impact Factor