Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: overview and perspectives
ABSTRACT Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. tropici, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation.
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ABSTRACT: Background and aims Legumes of the South African genus Lessertia, along with their microsymbionts, were introduced into the Western Australia wheatbelt. They achieved poor establishment followed by weak summer survival. This was caused in part by low levels of nodulation with the inoculant strains, and by ineffective nodulation with naturalized strains –an example of non-selective nodulation. The aims of this work were to assess Lessertia spp. symbiotic promiscuity, to study the effect of increased doses of an effective inoculant strain (WSM3565) with L. herbacea, and to study the competitive ability and symbiotic performance of dif-ferent Mesorhizobium strains nodulating L. diffusa. Methods A glasshouse experiment was set up to evalu-ate the ability of L. diffusa, L. capitata, L. herbacea and L. excisa to nodulate with inoculants under current use in Western Australia. To assess competitive ability two field experiments were set up at Karridale, Western Australia. L. herbacea was inoculated with the strain WSM3565 at different doses and L. diffusa was inocu-lated with ten different Mesorhizobium strains. Rhizobia were re-isolated from nodules and their identity con-firmed through PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of their partial dnaK. Results There were differences in promiscuity between different Lessertia spp., where L. herbacea proved to be highly promiscuous under controlled conditions. Increasing the inoculation dose of L. herbacea with WSM3565 did not improve establishment and survival of the legume in the field. Although WSM3565 nodule occupancy improved from 28 to 54 % with higher doses of inoculation, none of the treatments increased L. herbacea yield over the inoculated control. The inoc-ulation of L. diffusa with the strains WSM3598, 3636, 3626 and 3565 resulted in greater biomass production than the uninoculated control. These strains were able to outcompete resident rhizobia and to occupy a high (>60 %) proportion of lateral root nodules. The naturalised strains that achieved nodulation were identi-fied as R. leguminosarum. Conclusion The high numbers of resident rhizobia and their ability to rapidly nodulate Lessertia spp. are likelyPlant and Soil 03/2014; 380:117-132. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bean plants from the Phaseolus genus are widely consumed and represent a nitrogen source for human nutrition. They provide biological fertilization by establishing root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To establish a successful interaction, bean plants and their symbiotic bacteria need to synchronize a proper molecular crosstalk. Within the Phaseolus genus, P. vulgaris has been the prominent species to study nodulation with Rhizobium symbionts. However the Phaseolus genus comprises diverse species whose symbionts have not been analyzed. Here we identified and studied nodule bacteria from representative Phaseolus species not previously analyzed and from all the described wild species related to P. vulgaris. We found Bradyrhizobium in nodules from most species representing all Phaseolus clades except in five phylogenetically related species from the P. vulgaris clade. Therefore we propose that Bradyrhizobium nodulation is common in Phaseolus and that there was a symbiont preference shift to Rhizobium nodulation in few related species. This work sets the basis to further study the genetic basis of this symbiont substitution.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 06/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
- Agricultural and Food Science 01/2014; 23(3):173-185. · 1.00 Impact Factor