Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: overview and perspectives. Plant Soil
Plant and Soil (Impact Factor: 2.95). 04/2003; 252(1):11-23. DOI: 10.1023/A:1024199013926
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. tropici, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation.
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- "Nodulation genes of B. paxllaeri and B. icense belong to clade IV, which is found in rhizobia isolated mostly in subtropical regions from a wide range of legume plants growing in the Mediterranean region, Australia and China (Cardinale et al., 2008; Durán et al., 2013; Ormeño-Orrillo et al., 2013; Stepkowski et al., 2012). It is now recognized that most species of Phaseolus associate preferentially with Bradyrhizobium and only a minority, like P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, prefer to enter in symbiosis with fast growing rhizobial genera like Rhizobium or Sinorhizobium (Martínez-Romero, 2003; Servín- Garcidueñas et al., 2014). Occasionally, fast-growing rhizobia have been isolated from Lima bean in Peru (Matos-Cuzcano et al., 1998; Ormeño et al., 2007; Zúñiga-Dávila, 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Like other leguminous plants, the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) establishes a mutualistic symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria commonly known as rhizobia. These bacteria elicit the formation of nodule structures on the roots where they become intracellular and fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. The Lima bean shows a preference to form nodules with slow-growing bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium unlike its congeneric species, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), which prefer fast-growing rhizobial strains. P. lunatus was independently domesticated in the Andes and Mesoamerica by pre Columbian societies. Knowledge of the genetic biodiversity of Lima bean symbionts has increased in recent years with data obtained in its domestication areas. In Peru, Lima beans host Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri, Bradyrhizobium icense, and a yet unnamed genospecies. At least seven Bradyrhizobium genospecies have been found in P. lunatus nodules in Mexico. This rhizobial richness indicates a relative promiscuity of Lima bean in contrast to previous statements that this plant was a restricted host for nodulation. Interestingly, Mexican and Peruvian bradyrhizobia are distinct, perhaps in relation to the different plant gene pools from which domestication occurred in those geographic areas. Besides Bradyrhizobium, other rhizobial genera such as Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium can be found in Lima bean nodules in its domestication centers and in other areas. Although effective nodulation with these genera has been reported, the ecological relevance of those associations is presently unknown.Phaseolus lunatus: Diversity, Growth and Production, Edited by Â.C.A. Lopes, R.L.F. Gomes, A.S.F. de Araújo, 01/2015; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63482-537-5
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- "Legumes are the second most common crop in worldwide agriculture and represent a source of quality protein for human and animal nutrition . Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is a grain legume of tropical origin that establishes symbiosis with a wide range of Rhizobium species, mainly with Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium tropici, developing determinate nodules in the roots  . Vicia sativa (common vetch) is a forage legume native to central and southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, it forms indeterminate nodules in symbiosis with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae and it is used as green manure or livestock feed  . "
ABSTRACT: Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed.Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 05/2014; 111(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.04.005 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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- "Water hyacinth compost only and the farmyard manure appeared to favour nodulation by natural Rhizobium populations, because there were more nodules in plants that had not been inoculated. It has been suggested that native Rhizobium strains are better adapted for symbiosis within their area of origin than introduced commercial ones (Lopez-Garcia et al., 2002; Martinez-Romero, 2003; Dean et al., 2009). However, the adaptability of such strains is likely to be altered by soil amendments (Zahran, 1999; Andrade et al., 2002). "
ABSTRACT: The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris is an important crop for food security and nitrogen fixation through Rhizobium symbiosis. Commercial Rhizobium inoculants are being promoted to fix nitrogen and enhance bean production in the Lake Victoria basin. Rhizobium symbiosis depends on nutrients, especially phosphorus, which is widely applied as diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the Lake Victoria basin. Water hyacinth, Eichornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) is being developed into compost, with perceived benefits of improving crop production and limiting its disastrous spread in Lake Victoria. High nutrient content in water hyacinth compost can stimulate Rhizobium nodulation and nitrogen fixation, consequently improving plant growth and pest resistance. However, it is not yet established whether Rhizobium inoculants and water hyacinth composts are compatible options for plant growth promotion and pest suppression in beans. A field experiment with two trials was conducted to assess the compatibility of commercial Rhizobium inoculant, DAP, cattle farmyard manure (FYM), and four formulations of water hyacinth compost i.e., water hyacinth only (H), with molasses (H+Mol), cattle manure culture (H+CMC) or effective microbes (H+EM). Rhizobium inoculated plants had high number of root nodules when grown with H+CMC and H+EM. Plants were large in size with short development period when grown with the composts, especially H+CMC and H+EM. Those grown with H+EM produced high number of flowers. Rhizobium inoculated plants had high anthracnose incidence than non-inoculated ones when grown with H+CMC. Those grown with H+EM had low anthracnose incidence, but was high in FYM. During flowering, Rhizobium inoculated plants had higher Aphis fabae population than non-inoculated ones when grown in FYM or without fertilizer. Those grown with H+EM had the lowest A. fabae population. Yields in water hyacinth compost were improved, especially for H+CMC in the second trial. DAP treated plants had more flowers and pods having heavy seeds, with low anthracnose and A. fabae infestations; but had low germination rates that reduced the yields. In conclusion, the commercial Rhizobium inoculant is predominantly compatible with water hyacinth compost formulations containing effective microbes and cattle manure culture, which could enhance tolerance of bean plants to aphids and possibly to anthracnose disease. These two water hyacinth compost formulations need further investigation for their potential in enhancing food production and alleviating the water hyacinth problem in the Lake Victoria basin.Applied Soil Ecology 04/2014; 76:68–77. DOI:10.1016/j.apsoil.2013.12.011 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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