Inhibition of creatine kinase activity by lysine in rat cerebral cortex

Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS Brazil; Universidade luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS Brazil
Metabolic Brain Disease (Impact Factor: 2.33). 24(2):349-360. DOI: 10.1007/s11011-009-9131-z

ABSTRACT Accumulation of lysine (Lys) in tissues and biochemical fluids is the biochemical hallmark of patients affected by familial
hyperlysinemia (FH) and also by other inherited neurometabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effect of Lys on various parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of 30-day-old Wistar rats. We verified that total
(tCK) and cytosolic creatine kinase activities were significantly inhibited by Lys, in contrast to the mitochondrial isoform
which was not affected by this amino acid. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of Lys on tCK activity was totally prevented
by reduced glutathione, suggesting a possible role of reactive species oxidizing critical thiol groups of the enzyme. In contrast,
Lys did not affect 14CO2 production from [U-14C] glucose (aerobic glycolytic pathway) and [1-14C] acetic acid (citric acid cycle activity) neither the various activities of the electron transfer chain and synaptic Na+K+-ATPase at concentrations as high as 5.0mM. Considering the importance of creatine kinase (CK) activity for brain energy
metabolism homeostasis and especially ATP transfer and buffering, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by Lys
may contribute to the neurological signs presented by symptomatic patients affected by FH and other neurodegenerative disorders
in which Lys accumulates.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histidinemia is an inborn error of metabolism of amino acids caused by deficiency of histidase activity in liver and skin with consequent accumulation of histidine in plasma and tissues. Histidinemia is an autosomal recessive trait usually considered harmless to patients and their offspring, but some patients and children born from histidinemic mothers have mild neurologic alterations. Considering that histidinemia is one of the most frequently identified metabolic conditions, in the present study we investigated the effect of L-histidine load to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on some parameters of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring. Pyruvate kinase, cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities decreased in cerebral cortex and in hippocampus of rats at 21 days of age and this pattern remained in the cerebral cortex and in hippocampus at 60 days of age. Moreover, adenylate kinase activity was reduced in the cerebral cortex and in hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age, whereas the activity was increased in the two tissues at 60 days of age. These results suggest that administration of L-histidine to female rats in the course of pregnancy and lactation could impair energy homeostasis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring. Considering that histidinemia is usually a benign condition and little attention has been given to maternal histidinemia, it seems important to perform more studies in the children born from histidinemic mothers.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 05/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to report two new cases of hyperlysinemia type I describing the clinical, biochemical and molecular features of the disease and the outcome of lysine restriction. Two children presented with febrile seizures followed by developmental delay, clumsiness and epilepsy. At age 2 and 8years a biochemical and genetic diagnosis of hyperlysinemia type I was confirmed and lysine-restricted diet was started in both cases. Three years after initiation of lysine restriction, case 1 had not suffered further seizures. In case 2, tremor and dysmetria improved, but fine motor clumsiness persisted. Mild cognitive impairment was present in both patients despite dietary treatment. Laboratory studies: Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid amino acid concentrations were measured by ion exchange chromatography. Mutation analysis of the AASS gene was performed by directly sequencing the PCR products. The plasma lysine values were higher than 1200μmol/L in both cases. Additionally, an increase in dibasic aminoaciduria was observed. Lysine restriction decreased plasma lysine values and nearly normalised dibasic aminoaciduria. Mutational screening of the AASS gene revealed that case 1 was a compound heterozygote for c.2662+1_2662+5delGTAAGinsTT and c.874A>G and that case 2 was a compound heterozygote for c.976_977delCA and c.1925C>G. In conclusion, we present two children with hyperlysinemia type I and neurological impairment in which implementation of lysine-restricted diet achieved a mild improvement of symptoms but did not reverse cognitive impairment. The partial decrease of lysine concentrations and the normalisation of urine excretion of dibasic amino acids after lysine restriction further reinforce the possibility of this therapeutic intervention, although further investigations seem necessary.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 07/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-lysine degradation. To date only one causal mutation in the AASS gene encoding alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has been reported. We aimed to better define the genetic basis of hyperlysinemia. METHODS: We collected the clinical, biochemical and molecular data in a cohort of 8 hyperlysinemia patients with distinct neurological features. RESULTS: We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. In two patients originating from one family, the hyperlysinemia was caused by a contiguous gene deletion syndrome affecting AASS and PTPRZ1. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperlysinemia is caused by mutations in AASS. As hyperlysinemia is generally considered a benign metabolic variant, the more severe neurological disease course in two patients with a contiguous deletion syndrome may be explained by the additional loss of PTPRZ1. Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed biochemical and genetic studies in any hyperlysinemia patient.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 04/2013; 8(1):57. · 4.32 Impact Factor