Should recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers become vegetarians?
ABSTRACT The hypothesis that the incidence of calcium stone disease is related to the consumption of animal protein has been examined. Within the male population, recurrent idiopathic stone formers consumed more animal protein than did normal subjects. Single stone formers had animal protein intakes intermediate between those of normal men and those of recurrent stone formers. A high animal protein intake caused a significant increase in the urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate and uric acid, 3 of the 6 main urinary risk factors for calcium stone formation. The overall relative probability of forming stones, calculated from the combination of the 6 main urinary risk factors, was markedly increased by a high animal protein diet. Conversely, a low animal protein intake, such as taken by vegetarians, was associated with a low excretion of calcium, oxalate and uric acid and a low relative probability of forming stones.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dietary intakes of 88 renal stone cases and 88 age and sex matched controls were assessed by dietary history using a standardised questionnaire. The stone cases were divided into six subgroups established on the basis of urine biochemistry (calcium, oxalate and uric acid) and stone composition. The average intake of each group was then compared with that of their controls using standard statistical procedures. Cases with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones had significantly lower intakes of dietary fibre, noncellulose polysaccharide, phytate, magnesium, phosphate and thiamine than controls. No significant difference in dietary intake was found between cases with high urinary calcium and uric acid and their respective controls. All cases with a high urinary oxalate had a significantly higher intake of vitamin C than controls. Our results support the belief that dietary intake is an important pre-urinary risk factor of idiopathic renal stone disease.Urological Research 03/1986; 14(2):75-82. · 1.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. Obesity increases the risk of developing chronic medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. We performed a retrospective review of a large data base on urinary stones to determine if differences are found in urine and serum chemistries among obese and nonobese stone-forming patients. The effect of body weight on stone recurrence among urinary stone formers was also determined.Methods. A national data base containing serum biochemical profiles, 24-hour urine specimens, and standardized questionnaires was retrospectively evaluated from 5942 consecutive patients with urinary stone disease. Stone-forming patients were classified by body weight: nonobese men, less than 100 kg and nonobese women, less than 85 kg; intermediate men, 100 to 120 kg and intermediate women, 85 to 100 kg; and obese men, more than 120 kg and obese women, more than 100 kg.Results. Obese stone formers comprised 6.8% (n = 404) of the patient population. The mean weight in the nonobese and obese groups was 81 kg versus 134 kg, respectively, for men and 64 kg versus 112 kg, respectively, for women. Obese patients represented 3.8% of the male and 12.6% of the female population. Obese patients had increased urinary excretion of sodium, calcium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, phosphate, oxalate, uric acid, and cystine; obesity was associated with increased urinary volumes and urine osmolality compared with the nonobese patients. Obese men had increased concentration of urinary sodium, oxalate, uric acid, sulfate, and phosphate when corrected for urinary volume. Obese women had increased concentrations of sodium, uric acid, sulfate, phosphate, and cystine. The mean number of stone episodes in nonobese versus obese men was similar (3.55 and 3.56), whereas mean stone episodes were 2.93 and 3.38 (P = 0.045) for nonobese versus obese women.Conclusions. Among known stone formers, obesity is associated with unique changes in both serum and urinary chemistries. These changes are associated with an increased incidence of urinary stone episodes in obese women but not in obese men.Urology 01/2000; 55(6):825-830. · 2.13 Impact Factor
Article: MEDICAL THERAPYUrologic Clinics of North America 02/1997; 24(1):117-133. · 1.35 Impact Factor