Effects of diet on fatty acid composition of body zones in larvae of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax: a chemometric study
ABSTRACT Larvae of the sea bass Dicentrachus labrax were fed four Artemia sp. diets for 28 d. Three were nauplii enriched with emulsions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the fourth nauplii enriched with baker's yeast. At the end of the experimental period, the fatty acids of the bodies, heads and eyes of the larvae were analysed. A multivariate statistical method (discriminant analysis, DA) applied to the data revealed anatomical as well as dietary fatty acid pattern-discrimination. We propose here the use of discriminant analysis as a pattern-recognition method that will help to integrate the fatty acid information obtained in nutritional studies.
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ABSTRACT: Total mercury (Hg) concentrations and lipid composition data, including fatty acid profiles, for 61 midtrophic species (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans) collected from continental slope waters off south-east Australia were examined. Overall, Hg concentrations were greatest in fish (0.01-0.30 mu g g(-1) ww) (with highest content found in barracouta (Thyrsites atun) and whiptails (Coelorinchus fasciatus)), compared with cephalopods (0.01 and 0.17 mu g g(-1) ww) and crustaceans (<0.04 mu g g(-1) ww). Lipid composition varied between species and within habitat (mesopelagic, bathypelagic and benthic). Mean total lipid content ranged from 0.5 to 13.2% ww, and in most species was dominated by triacylglycerols and phospholipids. In fish and squid, fatty acids were generally dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas crustaceans were higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Multidimensional scaling analyses separated species into groupings according to their fatty acid composition that could be interpreted with taxonomic, trophic and habitat information. Discriminant function analyses indicated the most influential (predictor) fatty acids for each group. Biochemical profile classifications can be used in wider trophodynamic studies to understand contaminant transfer, trophic relationships and community dynamics in marine environments.Marine And Freshwater Research (1323-1650) (Csiro Publishing), 2010 , Vol. 61 , N. 10 , P. 1092-1108. 01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: Coral bleaching, i.e., loss of most of the symbiotic zooxanthellae normally found within coral tissue, has occurred with increasing frequency on coral reefs throughout the world in the last 20 years, mostly during periods of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments and observations indicate that coral bleaching results primarily from elevated seawater temperatures under high light conditions, which increases rates of biochemical reactions associated with zooxanthellar photosynthesis, producing toxic forms of oxygen that interfere with cellular processes. Published projections of a baseline of increasing ocean temperature resulting from global warming have suggested that annual temperature maxima within 30 years may be at levels that will cause frequent coral bleaching and widespread mortality leading to decline of corals as dominant organisms on reefs. However, these projections have not considered the high variability in bleaching response that occurs among corals both within and among species. There is information that corals and their symbionts may be capable of acclimatization and selective adaptation to elevated temperatures that have already resulted in bleaching resistant coral populations, both locally and regionally, in various areas of the world. There are possible mechanisms that might provide resistance and protection to increased temperature and light. These include inducible heat shock proteins that act in refolding denatured cellular and structural proteins, production of oxidative enzymes that inactivate harmful oxygen radicals, fluorescent coral pigments that both reflect and dissipate light energy, and phenotypic adaptations of zooxanthellae and adaptive shifts in their populations at higher temperatures. Such mechanisms, when considered in conjunction with experimental and observational evidence for coral recovery in areas that have undergone coral bleaching, suggest an as yet undefined capacity in corals and zooxanthellae to adapt to conditions that have induced coral bleaching. Clearly, there are limits to acclimatory processes that can counter coral bleaching resulting from elevated sea temperatures, but scientific models will not accurately predict the fate of reef corals until we have a better understanding of coral-algal acclimatization/adaptation potential. Research is particularly needed with respect to the molecular and physiological mechanisms that promote thermal tolerance in corals and zooxanthellae and identification of genetic characteristics responsible for the variety of responses that occur in a coral bleaching event. Only then will we have some idea of the nature of likely responses, the timescales involved and the role of 'experience' in modifying bleaching impact.Advances in Marine Biology 02/2003; 46:183-223. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary1. The value of algal fatty acids (FA) as diet biomarkers for benthic harpacticoid copepods was investigated. A high proportion of 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6 FA was observed in the lipid reserve fraction of copepods fed with cyanobacteria. In contrast, a high proportion of 16:1ω7 and ω3 FA (including eicosapentaenoic) was present in the lipid reserve fraction of copepods grown on diatoms.2. Copepods that were grown on cyanobacteria showed reduced survival and took 26% more time to develop from the first copepodid stage to adult than copepods that were grown on diatoms. Copepods feeding on the cyanobacteria showed reduced FA content when compared with animals fed with diatoms. This reduction in FA content was more pronounced in the apolar lipid fraction (mainly reserve lipids) than in the polar (mainly structural) lipid fraction.3. The FA profiles of algae were used to calculate a function discriminating between diatoms and cyanobacteria. This function was applied to the FA profiles in the reserve lipid fraction of copepods and correctly classified copepod diet. 16:1ω7, 18:2ω6 and 20:5ω3 were the most important FA in the discriminant function. The suitability of this chemometric method to infer copepod diet was further tested by using algal class FA data from literature to derive the discriminant functions. The correct classification of the diet when the functions were applied to FA composition of the copepod reserve lipids suggests that this method may be employed in trophic web studies. 18:3ω3, 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7 were the most important FA in the functions discriminating diatoms, cyanobacteria and green algae. The identification and quantification of the whole suit of 16:1ω7, 18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3 and 20:5ω3 in trophic web studies is therefore of paramount importance to infer diet origin of aquatic herbivores.4. The FA profile of copepod polar lipids did not reflect that of the diet. The presence of long chain polyunsaturated FAs in the polar lipid fraction of copepods feeding on the cyanobacterium suggests that C18 FAs from the diet may be elongated and desaturated by the copepod. The ability to elongate and desaturated FAs may reduce the importance of some FAs as diet biomarkers while it may turn the copepods into valuable trophic intermediaries in transferring organic matter from microorganisms to higher trophic levels.Freshwater Biology 12/2007; 53(1):77 - 90. · 3.93 Impact Factor