The aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix expresses molybdopterin carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Mo-CODH). A. pernix strains isolated from Tachibana Bay (TB1–8) were found to exhibit different levels of total Mo-CODH activity (low and high,
respectively), and the Mo-CODHs isolated from these strains also exhibit high or low activity. Mo-CODH gene transcription
was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, but no relation was found between the expression level of mRNA and the
activity level of Mo-CODH. The nucleotide sequences of A. pernix genes encoding the small, large, and medium subunits of Mo-CODH, respectively, and those of the putative promoter region
were identified from all TB strains. Amino acid substitutions were found in the sequences of high- and low-activity strains,
but no mutation was detected in the putative promoter regions. Homology modeling revealed that all amino acid substitutions
were localized on the surface of the Mo-CODH proteins. Based on these findings, we conclude that in A. pernix, the activity level of Mo-CODH may be regulated by translation or post-translational modification rather than by genomic
diversity or transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolates belonging to six genera not previously known to oxidize CO were obtained from enrichments with aquatic and terrestrial plants. DNA from these and other isolates was used in PCR assays of the gene for the large subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (coxL). CoxL and putative coxL fragments were amplified from known CO oxidizers (e.g., Oligotropha carboxidovorans and Bradyrhizobium japonicum), from novel CO-oxidizing isolates (e.g., Aminobacter sp. strain COX, Burkholderia sp. strain LUP, Mesorhizobium sp. strain NMB1, Stappia strains M4 and M8, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain LUP, and Xanthobacter sp. strain COX), and from several well-known isolates for which the capacity to oxidize CO is reported here for the first time (e.g., Burkholderia fungorum LB400, Mesorhizobium loti, Stappia stellulata, and Stappia aggregata). PCR products from several taxa, e.g., O. carboxidovorans, B. japonicum, and B. fungorum, yielded sequences with a high degree (>99.6%) of identity to those in GenBank or genome databases. Aligned sequences formed two phylogenetically distinct groups. Group OMP contained sequences from previously known CO oxidizers, including O. carboxidovorans and Pseudomonas thermocarboxydovorans, plus a number of closely related sequences. Group BMS was dominated by putative coxL sequences from genera in the Rhizobiaceae and other alpha-PROTEOBACTERIA: PCR analyses revealed that many CO oxidizers contained two coxL sequences, one from each group. CO oxidation by M. loti, for which whole-genome sequencing has revealed a single BMS-group putative coxL gene, strongly supports the notion that BMS sequences represent functional CO dehydrogenase proteins that are related to but distinct from previously characterized aerobic CO dehydrogenases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review focuses on how microbes live on CO as a sole source of carbon and energy and with CO by generating carbon monoxide as a metabolic intermediate. The use of CO is a property of organisms that use the Wood-L jungdahl pathway of autotrophic growth. The review discusses when CO metabolism originated, when and how it was discovered, and what properties of CO are ideal for microbial growth. How CO sensing by a heme-containing transcriptional regulatory protein activates the expression of CO metabolism-linked genes is described. Two metalloenzymes are the cornerstones of growth with CO: CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS). CODH oxidizes CO to CO2, providing low-potential electrons for the cell, or alternatively reduces CO2 to CO. The latter reaction, when coupled to ACS, forms a machine for generating acetyl-CoA from CO2 for cell carbon synthesis. The recently solved crystal structures of CODH and ACS along with spectroscopic measurements and computational studies provide insights into novel bio-organometallic catalytic mechanisms and into the nature of a 140 A gas channel that coordinates the generation and utilization of CO. The enzymes that are coupled to CODH/ACS are also described, with a focus on a corrinoid protein, a methyltransferase, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase.
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 05/2004; 39(3):165-95. DOI:10.1080/10409230490496577 · 7.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aldehyde oxidoreductase (MOD) isolated from the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774) is a member of the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. It has substrate specificity similar to that of the homologous enzyme from Desulfovibrio gigas (MOP) and the primary sequences from both enzymes show 68 % identity. The enzyme was crystallized in space group P6122, with unit cell dimensions of a=b=156.4 Å and c=177.1 Å, and diffraction data were obtained to beyond 2.8 Å. The crystal structure was solved by Patterson search techniques using the coordinates of the D. gigas enzyme. The overall fold of the D. desulfuricans enzyme is very similar to MOP and the few differences are mapped to exposed regions of the molecule. This is reflected in the electrostatic potential surfaces of both homologous enzymes, one exception being the surface potential in a region identifiable as the putative docking site of the physiological electron acceptor. Other essential features of the MOP structure, such as residues of the active-site cavity, are basically conserved in MOD. Two mutations are located in the pocket bearing a chain of catalytically relevant water molecules.As deduced from this work, both these enzymes are very closely related in terms of their sequences as well as 3D structures. The comparison allowed confirmation and establishment of features that are essential for their function; namely, conserved residues in the active-site, catalytically relevant water molecules and recognition of the physiological electron acceptor docking site.
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