Miniemulsion polymerization of styrene using well-defined cationic amphiphilic comblike copolymers as the sole stabilizer
Colloid and Polymer Science (Impact Factor: 1.87). 10/2005; 284(2):142-150. DOI: 10.1007/s00396-005-1350-1
Well-defined, positively charged, amphiphilic copolymers containing long alkyl side chains were used as stabilizers in the miniemulsion polymerization of styrene. The copolymers were prepared by controlled free-radical copolymerization of styrene and vinyl benzyl chloride using either the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer method or TEMPO-mediated polymerization. The benzyl chloride moities were modified by two different long alkyl chain tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyldodecyl amine and N,N-dimethylhexadecyl amine) to yield the amphiphilic copolymers with vinylbenzyl dimethyl alkyl ammonium chloride units. Owing to their high structural quality, only a small amount of these copolymers was required to stabilize the latex particles (0.5–2wt% vs styrene). Moreover, in the absence of any hydrophobic agent, the amphiphilic comblike copolymer preserved the colloidal stability of both the initial liquid miniemulsion and the final latex. Ill-defined, analogous copolymers were synthesized by conventional free-radical polymerization and in comparison, exhibited poor stabilization properties.
- Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium, 1992., Thirteenth IEEE/CHMT International; 10/1992
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ABSTRACT: The nitroxide-mediated controlled free-radical copolymerization of styrene (St) and acrylic acid ( AA) was used to synthesize a well-defined poly(St(30%)-co-AA70%) amphiphilic gradient copolymer. The latter proved to be an efficient stabilizer in the 45 wt.-% solids content, batch miniemulsion polymerizations of St and of mixtures of methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (35/65 w/w). With 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an oil-soluble initiator, polystyrene latexes with a very narrow particle distribution were obtained, whereas the water-soluble initiator, potassium persulfate, led to broad, multimodal particle size distributions. Such results were explained by the contribution of two nucleation mechanisms: droplet nucleation and homogeneous nucleation. In contrast, the poly( methyl methacrylateco-n-butyl acrylate) latexes exhibited larger particle size and narrower particle size distributions with persulfate initiator, than the polystyrene latexes.Australian Journal of Chemistry 01/2006; 59(8). DOI:10.1071/CH06146 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel Y-shaped macromonomer based on poly[(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) with a narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized via oxyanion-initiated polymerization in which a potassium alcoholate of trimethylol propane allyl ether (2K-TMPAE) was used as a difunctional initiator. For the miniemulsion polymerization of styrene, this macromonomer acted well both as a comonomer carrying a reactive C=C double bond in its central section and as a pH-responsive polycationic surfactant in media with different pH values. The resulting microspheres composed of a hydrophobic polystyrene core and a hydrophilic PDMAEMA-protonated corona have shown spherical morphology and are quite stable. The nature of the reactive group, the amount of polymeric surfactant, and pH values in the aqueous medium have been systematically investigated during the miniemulsion polymerization by analyzing the evolution of the monomer conversions. The results of FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra demonstrated the generation of the functional particles. The analyses of TEM micrographs and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirmed that the latices had a relatively narrow particle size distribution. The measurement of the zeta potential gave further evidence of the "hairy" particle structure. Because the reactive group is located in the central section of the macromonomer, the stabilization mechanism of the polymeric surfactant can be ascribed to (1) the absorption of two polycationic and hydrophilic tails that have electrostatic and steric stabilization to decrease the interface tension and (2) the copolymerization with the styrene monomer.Langmuir 08/2006; 22(14):6016-23. DOI:10.1021/la053276z · 4.46 Impact Factor
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