The benefit to some minnows of spawning in the nests of other species

Illinois Natural History Survey
Environmental Biology of Fishes (Impact Factor: 1.57). 05/1994; 40(2):213-218. DOI: 10.1007/BF00002547

ABSTRACT Fishes that act as nest associates spawn simultaneously with nest-building hosts and then abandon their eggs. The proposed benefit for this behavior is increased brood survivorship, arising from the physical environment provided by the nest or the parental care provided by the host. Field and enclosure experiments indicated that associates benefit from the parental care provided by the host, and not from the physical environment provided by the nests of hosts. This information, along with the effect of nest association on host reproductive success, is necessary before the nature of this nesting symbiosis can be characterized.

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    • "In fact , associate progeny must benefit from nest defence because after spawning , adult male chubs maintain nests by turning and adding stones . Many studies suggest that parental care , rather than physical structure , is the primary reason species choose to use nest association ( Wallin , 1989 ; Johnston , 1994a ; Shao , 1997a ) . Using experimental methods , these studies demonstrate that artificially maintained nests do not attract nest associates , and that associate reproductive success is reduced in untended nests . "
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    ABSTRACT: Although nest association among Nocomis chubs and other minnows (Cyprinidae) is common throughout North America, the overall outcome of this relationship and its mechanisms of costs and benefits remain unclear. Because imperilment of stream fishes is affected by reproductive traits, the implications of this widespread interaction must be understood.Nest association mechanisms were explored using a multiple working hypotheses framework on fish assemblage data from 25 reaches in three tributaries of the New River, Virginia, USA. Multiple linear regression models predicting reproductive success (age-0 abundance) of chubs and associates were compared based on model weights (wi) calculated from Akaike's Information Criterion, adjusted for small sample size (AICc), and relative change in AICc among models. For age-0 chubs, models represented hypotheses emphasizing the additive effects of adult abundance, nest abundance, and egg dilution by juvenile associates (causing decreased egg predation). For age-0 associates, models represented hypotheses emphasizing adult associate abundance, gravel substrate availability, nest abundance, parental care (as nest defence) from chubs, and egg dilution by chubs.Model evidence suggests that chubs can sustain themselves (w = 0.61), but their reproductive success is enhanced by a dilution effect from juvenile strong associates (w = 0.37). Strong associate reproductive success was best described by variables emphasizing nest association interactions (w = 0.46) and natural sources of habitat variability (w = 0.45), whereas that of weak associates was more closely related to availability of unmodified habitat (w = 0.50).Chubs and associates appear to receive a net benefit from the association, suggesting a mutualistic relationship. Community-wide conservation strategies may be useful for protecting symbiotic spawning fishes. In addition to competition and predation, conservation practitioners should consider positive interactions in conservation plans of imperiled mutualists. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12/2013; 23(6). DOI:10.1002/aqc.2361 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) is an alternative reproductive tactic used by females in many insects, fishes, birds and other animals with maternal care (e.g. Brockman 1993, Johnston 1994, Yom-Tov 2001, Tallamy 2005). The parasite lays eggs in the nest of another female of the same species, which raises the parasite's offspring together with her own. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) is an alternative reproductive tactic found in many animals with parental care. Parasitizing females lay eggs in the nests of other females (hosts) of the same species, which incubate and raise both their own and the foreign offspring. The causes and consequences of CBP are debated. Using albumen fingerprinting of eggs for accurately detecting parasitism, we here analyse its relation to female condition and clutch size in High Arctic common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis. Among 166 clutches in a Svalbard colony, 31 (19%) contained eggs from more than one female, and 40 of 670 eggs (6%) were parasitic. In 6 cases an active nest with egg(s) was taken over by another female. Many suitable nest sites were unoccupied, indicating that CBP and nest takeover are reproductive tactics, not only consequences of nest site shortage. Similarity in body mass between female categories suggests that condition does not determine whether a nesting female becomes parasitised. There was no evidence of low condition in parasites: egg size was similar in hosts and parasites, and parasitism was equally frequent early and late in the laying season. Meta-analysis of this and 3 other eider studies shows that there is a cost of being parasitised in this precocial species: host females laid on average 7% fewer eggs than other females.
    Journal of Avian Biology 05/2011; 42(3):231 - 238. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2010.05288.x · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Though there is often ''jockeying'' for position in core Hydrophlox aggregations among males, N. baileyi engages in highly aggressive displays and occasional fin biting (MFC, pers. obs.; Johnston and Kleiner, 1994). Additionally, male N. baileyi are particularly distinctive in their tuberculation, and the common name, Rough Shiner, is apt: breeding males have fine tubercles on margins of scales along the body (Suttkus and Fig. 5. 90% majority rule consensus tree from a partitioned mixed model Bayesian analysis of partial RH sequence data; Bayesian posterior probabilities P95% are indicated with an asterisk above the node, numbers below the node are bootstrap pseudoreplicate values. "
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    ABSTRACT: Notropis is one of the largest genera of North American fishes and is composed of a number of morphologically diagnosed subgroups; however, the validity of many has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. One such subgroup is the subgenus Hydrophlox, which is composed of brilliantly colored species that engage in the symbiotic reproductive behavior of nest association. Although they have long been recognized as a cohesive group due to their nuptial coloration and fin tuberculation, very little is known about the relationships of species within Hydrophlox. We tested the monophyly of Hydrophlox using a mitochondrial marker (ND2) and two nuclear markers (ITS1 and RH), with Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian inference approaches. A well supported clade of "core"Hydrophlox was recovered and is composed of five taxa: Notropis chiliticus, Notropis rubricroceus, Notropis lutipinnis, Notropis chlorocephalus, and Notropis chrosomus. Hydrophlox s.l. is paraphyletic with respect to three taxa: Notropis baileyi, Notropis leuciodus and Notropis nubilus. While there was some discordance among the individual marker topologies, a combined evidence analysis recovered a topology that incorporated elements from all single-gene trees. Our analyses suggest that Hydrophlox is composed of five nominal species and additional undescribed diversity exists within this clade.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 03/2011; 59(3):725-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.019 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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