Soil and leaf nutrient interactions following application of calcium silicate slag to sugarcane
ABSTRACT In certain areas of the Everglades Agricultural Area, plant and ratoon sugarcane (Saccharum L.) yields are increased by application of Si from calcium silicate slag. The greatest yield responses are obtained in the plant crop the first year after application of slag and when plant uptake of Si is increased. Magnesium deficiencies have been reported after slag application. The objective of this study was to quantify interactions of soil and leaf nutrients on sugarcane grown on a Terra Ceia muck (Euic, hyperthermic Typic Medisaprist) that had previously received calcium silicate slag. Slag was applied at five rates, and yields were evaluated from plant, first-ratoon, and second-ratoon (stubble) crops at two locations. Soil and leaf from each crop were sampled for nutrient analysis and the results were used to interpret the yield data. Although slag increased cane yield by as much as 39% and sugar yield by 50%, for each 100 mg L–1 drop in extractable soil Mg, cane yields declined by 5.3 Mg ha–1 and sugar yields by 0.9 Mg ha–1. At leaf Si concentrations exceeding 10 g kg–1, optimum cane and sugar yields were observed, while leaf Mg concentrations approached critical leaf concentrations below 1.5 g kg–1. Estimates of total leaf nutrient uptake during each crop indicated that uptake of Mg did not meet nutrient demands at high biomass production. Nutrient antagonism between Si and Mg is suggested. Low soil Mg may contribute to the marked crop responses to slag and for the decline in stubble production. Application of a magnesium fertilizer may be necessary to maintain high nutrient availability.
- SourceAvailable from: Lawrence E Datnoff[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements found in the earth's crust, but is mostly inert and only slightly soluble. Agriculture activity tends to remove large quantities of Si from soil. Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other mineral nutrient, accumulating approximately 380 kg ha of Si, in a 12‐month‐old crop. Sugarcane (plant growth and development) responses to silicon fertilization have been documented in some areas of the world, and applications on commercial fields are routine in certain areas. The reason for this plant response or yield increase is not fully understood, but several mechanisms have been proposed. Some studies indicate that sugarcane yield responses to silicon may be associated with induced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as disease and pest resistance, Al, Mn, and Fe toxicity alleviation, increased P availability, reduced lodging, improved leaf and stalk erectness, freeze resistance, and improvement in plant water economy. This review covers the relationship of silicon to sugarcane crop production, including recommendations on how to best manage silicon in soils and plants, silicon interactions with others elements, and laboratory methodology for determining silicon in the soil, plant and fertilizer. In addition, a future research agenda for silicon in sugarcane is proposed.Journal of Plant Nutrition - J PLANT NUTR. 01/1999; 22(12):1853-1903.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background and aims Soil amendment with silicon (Si) can significantly increase resistance of susceptible sugarcane cultivars grown in pots to stalk borer Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This study tested the hypothesis that a single application of silicate can increase resistance to E. saccharina and increase yield in field-grown sugarcane. Methods Two Si materials (Calmasil® and Slagment® at 4 and 8 t/ha) were applied at planting to a field trial extending over three successive crops and incorporating three sugarcane cultivars varying in borer susceptibility. Results Both materials, especially Slagment, significantly increased soil, leaf and stalk Si content, but leaf Si levels seldom exceeded 0.5 %. Silicon treatment significantly reduced percent stalks bored in all three crops and stalk length bored in the second ratoon crop, but did not affect borer numbers per 100 stalks (E/100) or increase cane or sucrose yield. Borer damage and E/100 were significantly and consistently reduced in the resistant cultivar. Conclusions We argue that if leaf Si% in field sugarcane can be elevated to or exceed 0.8 %, using materials that release Si slowly, substantial reductions in stalk damage and sucrose loss could be achieved in susceptible cultivars in low-Si soils.Plant and Soil 01/2013; 363(1-2). · 3.24 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The siderurgy slag, as acidity correction material with reaction slower than the limestone, can benefit long-term crops such as sugar cane. This work had as objective to evaluate the response of the sugarcane during five cycles of production as function of the application of siderurgy slag. The work was carried out at Ituverava (SP), in a Red Yellow Latosol (V=26%). The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 4, with four replications. The factors consisted of two corrective materials (slag of siderurgy and limestone) at four levels: 0; 1.23, 2.52 and 3.8 t ha-1 equivalent of CaCO3. The cane stalk production was evaluated throughout five cycles of culture (harvests 1998/1999 up to 2002/2003), and soil sampling (0-20 cm) and base saturation evaluation being performed in the first four cycles. The slag of siderurgy and the limestone were similar in the correction of the acidity of the soil, along sugarcane cycles. The largest accumulated cane stalk production was associated to the soil base saturation near 60% and 70% when using limestone and slag of siderurgy, respectively.Bragantia 12/2008; 68(2):381-387.