Euv Spectroscopy of the Sunspot Region Noaa 7981 Using Soho – II. Velocities and Line Profiles

University of Oslo
Solar Physics (Impact Factor: 4.04). 04/1998; 179(2):279-312. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005046111810


We have studied the dynamics in the sunspot transition region between the chromosphere and the corona and investigated the extension of the flow field into the corona. Based on EUV spectra of a medium size sunspot and its surroundings, NOAA 7981, observed with CDS and SUMER on SOHO, we derive line-of-sight velocities and study the line profiles for a series of emission lines.The flow field in the low corona is found to differ markedly from that in the transition region. In the transition region the relative line-of-sight velocity shows an upflow in the umbra and relatively large areas with downflow that cover part of the penumbra. The spatial extent of these areas with upflow and downflow increases with increasing temperature in the transition region, but the whole flow field changes character as the temperature increases from the upper transition region to the low corona. Based on a calibration of the SUMER wavelength scale we find that the entire sunspot transition zone appears to be moving downwards towards the chromosphere. The relation between this finding and the general tendency for transition-region lines to show a net red shift is discussed.Several of the transition-region spectral line profiles are observed to show two line components with Gaussian shape and line-of-sight velocities that differ markedly. Several of the line profiles that are composed of two spectral line components occur close to the dividing line between up- and downflow. A discussion of this observation is presented. In small regions with spatial extent of a few arc sec we detect enhanced continuum emission underlying explosive events. The similarities between explosive events with continuum emission and the moustaches observed in H close to sunspots are so striking that we are tempted to introduce the notation transition-region moustaches.

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    ABSTRACT: We present high spatial and spectral resolution observations of one active and one quiet-Sun region, obtained with CDS and SUMER on SOHO. The connections between the line profile parameters are studied and a systematic wavelength shift towards the red with increasing peak line intensity (line broadening) is detected. The large scatter in the data calls for another approach. We apply conditional probability analysis to a series of EUV emission lines and find significant correlations between line profile parameters. For a given interval in wavelength shift we find that: (1) line profiles with large intensities (line widths) and red shifts above the average constitute an increasing fraction of the profiles as the relative wavelength shift increases, (2) line profiles with large intensities (line widths) and blue shifts compared to the average, on the other hand, constitute a decreasing fraction of the profiles as the relative wavelength shift increases. These results extend the findings of an earlier quiet-Sun study from one to several emission lines and expand the validity to include the active region. Interestingly, the active region observations show correlations between peak line intensity and wavelength shift in the coronal lines.The tendency for red-shifted profiles to be more intense than blue-shifted profiles will shift line profiles derived by integrating along the slit towards the red. From the present observations we are not able to determine the fraction of the net red shift that emerges from this correlation. We suggest that the same mechanism is responsible both for the correlation between the line profile parameters and for the differential red shift between the transition region and chromospheric emission lines.
    Solar Physics 01/1998; 181(1):23-50. DOI:10.1023/A:1005059011759 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on EUV observations of eleven sunspot regions obtained with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer, CDS, on SOHO we have studied the spatial distribution, temporal variation and wavelength shift of the Hei 584 line. We find a relatively high spatial correlation between the coronal line Fexvi 360 and the Hei 584 line. This points to coronal back-radiation as an important contributor to the formation of the Hei line in active regions. However, contribution to the line formation from another source is suggested by the following two findings: First, the red-shifted line profiles of both Hei 584 and the transition region lines tend to be more intense than blue-shifted profiles. Second, the Hei 584 emission changes significantly faster than the coronal line emission.
    Solar Physics 12/1998; 184(1):113-132. DOI:10.1023/A:1005070413113 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a study of the spatial distributions of line emission and relative line-of-sight velocity in the atmosphere above 17sunspot regions, from the chromosphere, through the transition region and into the corona, based on simultaneous observations of ten EUV emission lines with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer – CDS on SOHO. We find that the spatial distributions are nonuniform over the sunspot region and introduce the notation ''sunspot loop'' to describe an enhanced transition region emission feature that looks like a magnetic loop, extending from inside the sunspot to the surrounding regions. We find little evidence for the siphon flow. Attention is given to the time variations since we observe both a rapid variation with a characteristic time of a few to several minutes and a slow variation with a time constant of several hours to 1day. The most prominent features in the transition region intensity maps are the sunspot plumes. We introduce an updated criterion for the presence of plumes and find that 15 out of 17sunspots contain a plume in the temperature range logT5.2–5.6. The relative line-of-sight velocity in sunspot plumes is high and directed into the Sun in the transition region. Almost all the sunspot regions contain one or a few prominent, strongly redshifted velocity channels, several of the channels extend from the sunspot plume to considerable distances from the sunspot. The flow appears to be maintained by plasmas at transition region temperatures, moving from regions located at a greater height outside the sunspots and towards the sunspot. The spatial correlation is high to moderate between emission lines formed in the transition region lines, but low between the transition region lines and the coronal lines. From detailed comparisons of intensity and velocity maps we find transition region emission features without any sign of coronal emission in the vicinity. A possible explanation is that the emission originates in magnetic flux tubes that are too cold to emit coronal emission. The comparisons suggest that gas at transition region temperature occur in loops different from loops with coronal temperature. However, we cannot exclude the presence of transition region temperatures close to the footpoints of flux tubes emitting at coronal temperatures. Regions with enhanced transition region line emission tend to be redshifted, but the correlation between line emission and relative line-of-sight velocity is weak. We extend our conditional probability studies and confirm that there is a tendency for line profiles with large intensities and red shifts (blue shifts) above the average to constitute an increasing (decreasing) fraction of the profiles as the wavelength shift increases.
    Solar Physics 01/1999; 186(1):141-191. DOI:10.1023/A:1005171821924 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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