Euv Spectroscopy of the Sunspot Region Noaa 7981 Using Soho – II. Velocities and Line Profiles
ABSTRACT We have studied the dynamics in the sunspot transition region between the chromosphere and the corona and investigated the extension of the flow field into the corona. Based on EUV spectra of a medium size sunspot and its surroundings, NOAA 7981, observed with CDS and SUMER on SOHO, we derive line-of-sight velocities and study the line profiles for a series of emission lines.The flow field in the low corona is found to differ markedly from that in the transition region. In the transition region the relative line-of-sight velocity shows an upflow in the umbra and relatively large areas with downflow that cover part of the penumbra. The spatial extent of these areas with upflow and downflow increases with increasing temperature in the transition region, but the whole flow field changes character as the temperature increases from the upper transition region to the low corona. Based on a calibration of the SUMER wavelength scale we find that the entire sunspot transition zone appears to be moving downwards towards the chromosphere. The relation between this finding and the general tendency for transition-region lines to show a net red shift is discussed.Several of the transition-region spectral line profiles are observed to show two line components with Gaussian shape and line-of-sight velocities that differ markedly. Several of the line profiles that are composed of two spectral line components occur close to the dividing line between up- and downflow. A discussion of this observation is presented. In small regions with spatial extent of a few arc sec we detect enhanced continuum emission underlying explosive events. The similarities between explosive events with continuum emission and the moustaches observed in H close to sunspots are so striking that we are tempted to introduce the notation transition-region moustaches.
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ABSTRACT: We propose a unified interpretation for persistent coronal outflows and metric radio noise storms, two phenomena typically observed in association with quiescent solar active regions. Our interpretation is based on multi-wavelength observations of two such regions as they crossed the meridian in May and July 2007. For both regions, we observe a persistent pattern of blue-shifted coronal emission in high-temperature lines with Hinode/EIS, and a radio noise storm with the Nançay Radioheliograph. The observations are supplemented by potential and linear force-free extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field over large computational boxes, and by a detailed analysis of the coronal magnetic field topology. We find true separatrices in the coronal field and null points high in the corona, which are preferential locations for magnetic reconnection and electron acceleration. We suggest that the continuous growth of active regions maintains a steady reconnection across the separatrices at the null point. This interchange reconnection occurs between closed, high-density loops in the core of the active region and neighbouring open, low-density flux tubes. Thus, the reconnection creates strong pressure imbalances which are the main drivers of plasma upflows. Furthermore, the acceleration of low-energy electrons in the interchange reconnection region sustains the radio noise storm in the closed loop areas, as well as weak type III emission along the open field lines. For both active regions studied, we find a remarkable agreement between the observed places of persistent coronal outflows and radio noise storms with their locations as predicted by our interpretation.Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We analyse the evolution of coronal plasma upflows from the edges of AR 10978, which has the best limb-to-limb data coverage with Hinode's EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). We find that the observed evolution is largely due to the solar rotation progressively changing the viewpoint of nearly stationary flows. From the systematic changes in the upflow regions as a function of distance from disc centre, we deduce their 3D geometrical properties as inclination and angular spread in three coronal lines (SiVII, FeXII, FeXV). In agreement with magnetic extrapolations, we find that the flows are thin, fan-like structures rooted in quasi separatrix layers (QSLs). The fans are tilted away from the AR centre. The highest plasma velocities in these three spectral lines have similar magnitudes and their heights increase with temperature. The spatial location and extent of the upflow regions in the SiVII, FeXII and FeXV lines are different owing to (i) temperature stratification and (ii) line of sight integration of the spectral profiles with significantly different backgrounds. We conclude that we sample the same flows at different temperatures. Further, we find that the evolution of line widths during the disc passage is compatible with a broad range of velocities in the flows. Everything considered, our results are compatible with the AR upflows originating from reconnections along QSLs between over-pressure AR loops and neighboring under-pressure loops. The flows are driven along magnetic field lines by a pressure gradient in a stratified atmosphere. We propose that, at any given time, we observe the superposition of flows created by successive reconnections, leading to a broad velocity distribution.Solar Physics 11/2012; 283(2). · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New knowledge about sunspot transition region lines that deviate significantly from a Gaussian shape are presented. Attention is given to "multiple flows," a line profile phenomenon in which two or more distinct velocities are observed within the same spatial resolution element. We observe line profiles that are well represented by two Gaussian line components in the N V λ1242 and O V λ629 lines and introduce the notation "dual flow." We have detected transition region oscillations in one of the line components in the dual-flow events.The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 552(1):L77. · 6.73 Impact Factor