Distribution, structure and importance of the cephalic dorsal hump, a new sensory organ in calanoid copepods

University of Tokyo
Marine Biology (Impact Factor: 2.39). 01/1989; 101(2):173-185. DOI: 10.1007/BF00391456

ABSTRACT The occurrence, external morphology and internal ultrastructure of a cephalic integumental organ in calanoid copepods were studied, using the specimens from the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. This organ is located on the dorsoanterior surface of the cephalosome, and a name, cephalic dorsal hump (CDH) is proposed. Externally, it usually has two pores, anterior and apical, a dorsal plate, and a thin cuticle along the sides. CDH is found only in the male of Calanidae, Megacalanidae, Mecynoceridae and Paracalanidae, and showed some variation between species or species groups both in size and shape. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the specimens from Sagami Bay, Central Japan, revealed that the CDH of Paracalanus parvus and Calanus sinicus consists of two dermal glands and a receptor, which is assumed to be chemosensory. A comparison of the distributions of CDH and prehensile fifth legs of male calanoid copepods suggests that it plays an important role in mate recognition.

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    ABSTRACT: A unique type of integumental formation is described for several members of the copepod family Pontellidae. This surface attachment structure (SAS) consists of a mass of fine setules arranged in two semicircles on a flattened area of the anterodorsal surface of the cephalosome. Using transmission electron microscopy, the SAS was shown to be continous with the cuticle and not linked to chemo- or mechanosensory cells; its function is purely mechanical. This structure is probably an energy-saving means for these large and heavy neustonts to stay attached to the surface film. The SAS is species-specific and may thus be of potential importance to the systematics and phylogeny of the Pontellidae, in the same manner as integumental pores and sensilla, which form patterns characteristic of several copepod families and genera.
    Marine Biology 06/1992; 113(3):401-407. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An oval, dorsal organ, variously bearing four minute pits around a central pore and/or encircled by a cuticular border, has been reported for the cephalic region of various groups of living and fossil crustaceans. Although varying somewhat in location and in size, the organ appears basically uniform in organization in at least two of the major crustacean taxa: Branchiopoda (especially Laevicaudata) and Malacostraca (Decapoda and Syncarida). Little is known about its ultrastructure and function in various groups, and it is likely that the term ‘dorsal organ’ also has been applied to several nonhomologous structures. In particular, the embryonic dorsal organ, reviewed recently by Fioroni (Fioroni, P. 1980.—Zoologische Jahrbücher (Anatomie) 104: 425–465) and apparently functioning in nutrition and ecdysis, is not the topic of this paper; that organ is similar in name and location only and appears in embryonic uniramians, chelicerates, and crustaceans. The function of the dorsal organ in branchiopods is in ion regulation, possibly a secondary modification of the original function in marine crustaceans, which is unknown. In larval decapods, the organ probably functions as a chemo- or mechano-receptor. We review the known occurrence of the crustacean dorsal organ, describe the similarities and differences in structure in various taxa, and review the competing hypotheses concerning its function. Phylogenetic implications are discussed.
    Acta Zoologica 11/1992; 73(5):357 - 368. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Invertebrate Systematics - INVERTEBR SYST. 01/2007; 21(4).