Distribution, structure and importance of the cephalic dorsal hump, a new sensory organ in calanoid copepods
ABSTRACT The occurrence, external morphology and internal ultrastructure of a cephalic integumental organ in calanoid copepods were studied, using the specimens from the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. This organ is located on the dorsoanterior surface of the cephalosome, and a name, cephalic dorsal hump (CDH) is proposed. Externally, it usually has two pores, anterior and apical, a dorsal plate, and a thin cuticle along the sides. CDH is found only in the male of Calanidae, Megacalanidae, Mecynoceridae and Paracalanidae, and showed some variation between species or species groups both in size and shape. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the specimens from Sagami Bay, Central Japan, revealed that the CDH of Paracalanus parvus and Calanus sinicus consists of two dermal glands and a receptor, which is assumed to be chemosensory. A comparison of the distributions of CDH and prehensile fifth legs of male calanoid copepods suggests that it plays an important role in mate recognition.
Article: The chemical ecology of copepodsJournal of Plankton Research 07/2014; 36(4):895-913. DOI:10.1093/plankt/fbu025 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The structure of hitherto-unknown exocrine glands in the caudal rami of the pelagic copepods of the genus Calanus was investigated, together with the vertical, diel and seasonal variations in the occurrence of granules secreted from the glands. Zooplankton samples were collected in Sagami Bay by vertical tows of a net from 4 discrete layers at 250-m intervals in the upper 1000 m both day and night, with an additional seasonal sampling in the upper 200 m. The samples contained copepodids of Calanus sinicus (stages IV–VI), C. jashnovi (stages IV–V), and unidentified Calanus (stages I–III), which possessed the glands regardless of the developmental stage and sex. Each caudal ramus has an inner- and an outer gland each of which opens in a pore at the ventral base of a caudal seta. According to light microscopy the cavities of only the inner glands contained many transparent granules, some of which appeared to have been discharged to the environment. The granules were present regardless of day/night, depth, and season, with the maximum number of 52/copepod. The cells surrounding the inner cavity contained well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi-bodies, and secretory granules; the outer cavity contained granules of much lower density than those in the inner cavity. These observations rule out the possible functions of the glands for egg and sex pheromone production, and suggest most likely function is predator avoidance. However, neither has mechanical disturbance excited luminescence, nor has ultraviolet emission excited fluorescence, suggesting the secretion is non-luminescent. Alternative possible functions include secretion of defensive substances or substances that might enhance swarm formation. A survey of preserved copepod collections indicated presence of similar glands in Calanus helgolandicus, C. pacificus, Cosmocalanus darwinii, Mesocalanus tenuicornis, and Nannocalanus minor, suggesting evolution of the glands in the common ancestor of these species that comprise a monophyletic group within the Calanidae.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 06/2011; 91(04). DOI:10.1017/S0025315410001323 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Marine copepods, which inhabit the entire water column down to the seafloor, are key contributors to the food web, mainly providing a food source for many organisms in the form of zooplankton. Furthermore, they also play an important ecological role as associates or even parasites with various degrees of harm to their hosts. Copepods are found in almost all habitats and can be associated with virtually every metazoan group. A female and four males of a new endoparasitic copepod genus and species (Golfingicola abyssalis) are described from the trunk celom of the sipunculan Golfingia muricaudata (Southern, 1913), collected from the abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean near the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench. This sipunculan species is a typical deep sea representative of the northwestern Pacific region, occurring in the Bering Sea and the abyssal regions east of the Kuril Island chain. Despite numerous records of this species, a copepod association has not been reported prior to this paper. The new parasitic copepod species is tentatively placed in the Akessonia group given its endoparasitic behavior in Sipuncula, the elongated shape, the enlarged egg strings, and the presence of subchelate antenna, as well as lateral processes in males. Golfingicola abyssalis, however, shows some peculiarities that clearly differentiate it from the remaining endoparasites in Sipuncula. As the first abyssal endoparasite in Sipuncula, the species is characterized by the complete lack of any processes in females, the presence of a mandible in females, a weakly defined prosome–urosome boundary in females, the presence of a mouth in males, the free living behavior of males, a distinctly reduced number of trunk processes in males, as well as a more modified male antenna, displaying an endopodite and a highly modified setal element. A detailed review on the morphological characters of the four species currently grouped in the Akessonia group, and systematic and biogeographic information of their relevant host taxa is provided. On the basis of morphological and ecological similarities, the new species seems to be more closely related to the northern Atlantic Akessonia occulta Bresciani and Luetzen, 1962 than to Siphonobius gephyreicola Augener, 1903 and Coelotrophus nudus Ho et al., 1981.Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.005 · 2.76 Impact Factor