Distribution, structure and importance of the cephalic dorsal hump, a new sensory organ in calanoid copepods
ABSTRACT The occurrence, external morphology and internal ultrastructure of a cephalic integumental organ in calanoid copepods were studied, using the specimens from the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. This organ is located on the dorsoanterior surface of the cephalosome, and a name, cephalic dorsal hump (CDH) is proposed. Externally, it usually has two pores, anterior and apical, a dorsal plate, and a thin cuticle along the sides. CDH is found only in the male of Calanidae, Megacalanidae, Mecynoceridae and Paracalanidae, and showed some variation between species or species groups both in size and shape. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the specimens from Sagami Bay, Central Japan, revealed that the CDH of Paracalanus parvus and Calanus sinicus consists of two dermal glands and a receptor, which is assumed to be chemosensory. A comparison of the distributions of CDH and prehensile fifth legs of male calanoid copepods suggests that it plays an important role in mate recognition.
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ABSTRACT: Argyrodiaptomus paggii n. sp. is described from specimens collected in the Igarapé Boa Esperança, in the vicinity of the Samuel Reservoir, State of Rondônia, Brazil. The new species differs from its congeners by the following autapomor-phies: (1) Schmeil's organ large at apex, constricted at medial portion; (2) row of setules on the outer margin of basis first leg; (3) a peculiar disposition and structure of the spinules on the inner border of the basis of male's left and right fifth leg; and (4) female's second urosomite partially fused and telescoped into the genital somite. We provide a discussion about some aspects of the morphology and geographical distribution of all members of the genus.Zootaxa 01/2007; 1518:1-29.
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ABSTRACT: Mate location and recognition are essentially asymmetrical processes in the reproductive biology of calanoid copepods with the active partner (the male) locating and catching the largely passive partner (the female). This behavioural asymmetry has led to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in copepods, playing many pivotal roles during the various successive phases of copulatory and post-copulatory behaviour. Sexually dimorphic appendages and structures are engaged in (1) mate recognition by the male; (2) capture of the female by the male; (3) transfer and attachment of a spermatophore to the female by the male; (4) removal of discharged spermatophore(s) by the female; and (5) fertilization and release of the eggs by the female. In many male calanoids, the antennulary chemosensory system is enhanced at the final moult and this enhancement appears to be strongly linked to their mate-locating role, i.e. detection of sex pheromones released by the female. It can be extreme in calanoids inhabiting oceanic waters, taking the form of a doubling in the number of aesthetascs on almost every segment, and is less expressed in forms residing in turbulent, neritic waters. Mate recognition is a process where chemoreception and mechanoreception presumably work in conjunction. The less elaborate male chemosensory system in the Centropagoidea is counterbalanced by females playing a more active role in generating hydromechanical cues. This is reflected in females in the shape of the posterior prosomal margin, the complexity of urosomal morphology and the size of the caudal setae. Visual mate recognition may be important in the Pontellidae, which typically show sexual dimorphism in eye design. The most distinctive sexual dimorphism is the atrophy of the mouthparts of non-feeding males, illustrating how copepod detection systems can be shifted to a new modality at the final moult. In the next phase, the male captures the female using the geniculate antennule and/or other appendages. Three types of antennulary geniculations are recognized, and their detailed morphology suggests that they have originated independently. Grasping efficiency can be enhanced by the development of supplemental hinges. The scanty data on capture mechanisms in males lacking geniculate antennules are reviewed. It is suggested that the loss of the antennulary geniculation in many non-centropagoidean calanoids has evolved in response to increasing predator pressure imposed on pairs in amplexus. Spermatophore transfer and placement are generally accomplished by the modified leg 5 of the male. In some males, leg 5 consists of both a chelate grasping leg and a spermatophore-transferring leg, whereas in others, only the latter is developed. Tufts of fine setules/spinules and/or sclerotized elements on the terminal portion of the leg are involved in the transfer and attachment of the spermatophore. The configuration of gonopores, copulatory pores and their connecting ducts in the female genital double-somite is diversified in the early calanoid offshoots such as Arietellidae and Metridinidae, whereas in more derived groups, it is constant and invariable, with paired gonopores and copulatory pores located beneath a single genital operculum. The absence of seminal receptacles in most Centropagoidea limits the female's ability to store sufficient sperm for multiple egg batches, suggesting that repeated mating is necessary for sustained egg production. Discharged spermatophores are usually removed by the female leg 5 and/or specialized elements on other legs. In Tortanus (Atortus) Ohtsuka, which has rudimentary fifth legs in the female and complex coupling devices in the male, a spermatophore supposedly remains on the female urosome, since eggs appear to be released from a ventral opening of the spermatophore. The type of sexual dimorphism is closely related to habitat and biology. Some hyperbenthic families never show multiplication of aesthetascs on the male antennule, whereas families of the open pelagic realm such as the Aetideidae always have non-feeding males exhibiting secondary multiplication of antennulary aesthetascs. The various aspects and diversity of calanoid sexual dimorphism are herein considered in an evolutionary context.Hydrobiologia 01/2001; 453-454(1):441-466. DOI:10.1023/A:1013162605809
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ABSTRACT: An oval, dorsal organ, variously bearing four minute pits around a central pore and/or encircled by a cuticular border, has been reported for the cephalic region of various groups of living and fossil crustaceans. Although varying somewhat in location and in size, the organ appears basically uniform in organization in at least two of the major crustacean taxa: Branchiopoda (especially Laevicaudata) and Malacostraca (Decapoda and Syncarida). Little is known about its ultrastructure and function in various groups, and it is likely that the term ‘dorsal organ’ also has been applied to several nonhomologous structures. In particular, the embryonic dorsal organ, reviewed recently by Fioroni (Fioroni, P. 1980.—Zoologische Jahrbücher (Anatomie) 104: 425–465) and apparently functioning in nutrition and ecdysis, is not the topic of this paper; that organ is similar in name and location only and appears in embryonic uniramians, chelicerates, and crustaceans. The function of the dorsal organ in branchiopods is in ion regulation, possibly a secondary modification of the original function in marine crustaceans, which is unknown. In larval decapods, the organ probably functions as a chemo- or mechano-receptor. We review the known occurrence of the crustacean dorsal organ, describe the similarities and differences in structure in various taxa, and review the competing hypotheses concerning its function. Phylogenetic implications are discussed.Acta Zoologica 11/1992; 73(5):357 - 368. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-6395.1992.tb01108.x