Indirect electrooxidation of phenol, formaldehyde, and maleic acid in cells with and without a cation-exchange membrane, with a platinum anode and a gas-diffusion carbon black cathode, which generates hydrogen peroxide from molecular oxygen, proceeds with high efficiency and various oxidation depths, which depend on the intermediate nature: the process involving HO
occurs selectively and yields target products, while the formation of HO2
and HO leads to the destruction of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.
"Superoxide anion and the hydroperoxide ion (HO 2 − ), the conjugated base of hydrogen peroxide (pKa = 11.62 at 25°C), may reach the anode and undergo a reverse reaction of 6, 8, and 9 on the cathode in an undivided cell, which consumes a lot of energy and greatly decreases the electrolysis efficiency, as the superoxide anion and hydroperoxide ion also compete with the organics for anodic reactions (Brillas et al., 2003; Kornienko et al., 2004). To avoid this disadvantage, many types of diaphragms, such as, glass frit (Do and Yeh, 1996; Harrington and Pletcher, 1999) and cationic exchange member (Kornienko et al., 2004), were used to separate two-chamber electrolysis reactors, which could reduce the degradation time and increase the total current efficiency. The mechanism of radical generation on the cathode mentioned earlier may be useful for the development of new cathode material and an efficient reactor that generates more oxidizing radicals, to mineralize organic compounds. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation and transformation of radicals on the cathode of indirect electrochemical oxidation were studied by chemiluminescence (CL) and UV-Visible spectra in the reactor with a salt bridge that connected the separated chambers. The CL intensity of 4 x 10(-9) mol/L luminol on the cathode with bubbling oxygen was about seven times that of the intensity without it, which was because of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The existence of ROS, especially the generation of the superoxide radical, could be affirmed by the fact that the CL intensity of 4 x 10(-9) mol/L 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one with bubbling oxygen was about four times that of the intensity without it. However, there was no chemiluminescence on the anode under the same condition. The change in the UV-Visible spectra of nitro blue tetrazolium and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline at the cathode chamber affirmed the transformation from oxygen to superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The mechanism of the superoxide and hydroxyl radical generation and transformation on the cathode was discussed with the help of the experimental results and relative references.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrochemical oxidation of toluene and acetone at the high-pressure of oxygen was investigated. Oxidation of toluene and ace-tone at electrolysis under the pressure of oxygen occurs not only on the anode, but also on the cathode due to the generation of active particles of ions O À 2 ; HO À 2 , radicals HO Å 2 ; HO Å etc. Increasing the oxygen pressure showed an increase in the process efficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to demonstrate the advantages of electro-Fenton process and related electrochemical technologies based on Fenton's reaction chemistry. The electrochemical technology had gained significance due to its ability to prevent pollution problems. Its main advantage was its environmental compatibility, as the electron was the clean reagent. The technology also offered advantages, such as versatility, high energy efficiency, amenability of automation, and safety. It was revealed that the electrochemical technologies had the ability to decontaminate wastewaters containing a large variety of organic pollutants in a wide range of experimental conditions. All these technologies were suitable for destroying the initial pollutant and mineralize the solutions treated.
Chemical Reviews 10/2009; 109(12):6570-631. DOI:10.1021/cr900136g · 46.57 Impact Factor
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