Article

Pearls in autoimmunity

Department of Medicine B, Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
01/2011; 2(1):1-4. DOI: 10.1007/s13317-011-0016-x

ABSTRACT This manuscript does a review of the more frequent issues published at Autoimmunity Reviews, Journal of Autoimmunity and Autoimmunity
in the period of January–December 2009. The following topics were commented: (1) multiple sclerosis (MS) and its relationships
with Epstein Barr infection, with vitamin D polymorphism and the new modalities of MS treatment. (2) Type 1 diabetes and genetic
discovers, studies with GAD 65 and IA-2 autoantigen and the association T1D and autoimmune organ-specific diseases. (3) Autoimmune
thyroid disorders and its association with susceptibility genes and polymorphisms. (4) Multiplex autoantibody profiling approaches
in MS and rheumatoid arthritis. (5) Th17 cytokine in primary biliary cirrhosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
and celiac disease. (6) Vitamin D and experimental autoimmune prostatitis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

KeywordsAutoimmunity–Multiple sclerosis–Diabetes–Thyroid disorders–Vitamin D–Autoantibodies

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    ABSTRACT: Environmental and genetic factors appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the small and medium sized intrahepatic bile ducts. Environmental factors include exposure to various infectious, xenobiotic and chemical compounds. These exposures may occur occupationally, through water or air contamination, pharmacological administration or by elective exposure, to name a few. Hair dyes are compounds that have been implicated in the development of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and PBC. So far, only epidemiological studies have addressed the role of hair dyes in PBC, with limited results. Hair dyes in SLE have been examined, and have recently demonstrated an association, both epidemiologically and immunologically. This follows a series of negative studies, which may not have taken into account several features of hair dye use. This review will examine the literature surrounding hair dye use and SLE, and compare this to data surrounding PBC. Treating physicians should be prepared for questions surrounding the need to take precautions against repeated hair dye use and this topic is discussed further.
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